Article

Suppressive surrounds and contrast gain in magnocellular-pathway retinal ganglion cells of macaque

Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 6.75). 09/2006; 26(34):8715-26. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0821-06.2006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The modulation sensitivity of visual neurons can be influenced by remote stimuli which, when presented alone, cause no change in the ongoing discharge rate of the neuron. We show here that the extraclassical surrounds that underlie these effects are present in magnocellular-pathway (MC) but not in parvocellular-pathway (PC) retinal ganglion cells of the macaque. The response of MC cells to drifting gratings and flashing spots was halved by drifting or contrast-reversing gratings surrounding their receptive fields, but PC cell responses were unaffected. The suppression cannot have arisen from the classical receptive field, or been caused by scattered light, because it could be evoked by annuli that themselves caused little or no response from the cell, and is consistent with the action of a divisive suppressive mechanism. Suppression in MC cells was broadly tuned for spatial and temporal frequency and greater at high contrast. If perceptual phenomena with similar stimulus contexts, such as the "shift effect" and saccadic suppression, have a retinal component, then they reflect the activity of the MC pathway.

0 Followers
 · 
74 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit superior performance on tasks that rely on local details in an image, and they exhibit deficits in tasks that require integration of local elements into a unified whole. These perceptual abnormalities have been proposed to underlie many of the characteristic features of ASD, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the degree to which orientation-specific surround suppression, a well-known form of contextual modulation in visual cortex, is associated with autistic tendency in neurotypical (NT) individuals. Surround suppression refers to the phenomenon that the response to a stimulus in the receptive field of a neuron is suppressed when it is surrounded by stimuli just outside the receptive field. The suppression is greatest when the center and surrounding stimuli share perceptual features such as orientation. Surround suppression underlies a number of fundamental perceptual processes that are known to be atypical in individuals with ASD, including perceptual grouping and perceptual pop-out. However, whether surround suppression in the primary visual cortex (V1) is related to autistic traits has not been directly tested before. We used fMRI to measure the neural response to a center Gabor when it was surrounded by Gabors having the same or orthogonal orientation, and calculated a suppression index (SI) for each participant that denoted the magnitude of suppression in the same vs. orthogonal conditions. SI was positively correlated with degree of autistic tendency in each individual, as measured by the Autism Quotient (AQ) scale, a questionnaire designed to assess autistic traits in the general population. Age also correlated with SI and with autistic tendency in our sample, but did not account for the correlation between SI and autistic tendency. These results suggest a reduction in orientation-specific surround suppression in V1 with increasing autistic tendency.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:1017. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2014.01017 · 2.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A variety of anatomical and physiological evidence suggests that the brain performs computations using motifs that are repeated across species, brain areas, and modalities. The computational architecture of cortex, for example, is very similar from one area to another and the types, arrangements, and connections of cortical neurons are highly stereotyped. This supports the idea that each cortical area conducts calculations using similarly structured neuronal modules: what we term canonical computational motifs. In addition, the remarkable self-similarity of the brain observables at the micro-, meso- and macro-scale further suggests that these motifs are repeated at increasing spatial and temporal scales supporting brain activity from primary motor and sensory processing to higher-level behaviour and cognition. Here, we briefly review the biological bases of canonical brain circuits and the role of inhibitory interneurons in these computational elements. We then elucidate how canonical computational motifs can be repeated across spatial and temporal scales to build a multiplexing information system able to encode and transmit information of increasing complexity. We point to the similarities between the patterns of activation observed in primary sensory cortices by use of electrophysiology and those observed in large scale networks measured with fMRI. We then employ the canonical model of brain function to unify seemingly disparate evidence on the pathophysiology of schizophrenia in a single explanatory framework. We hypothesise that such a framework may also be extended to cover multiple brain disorders which are grounded in dysfunction of GABA interneurons and/or these computational motifs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.04.014 · 10.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stimuli appearing in the surround of the classical receptive field (CRF) can reduce neuronal firing and perceived contrast of a preferred stimulus in the CRF, a phenomenon referred to as surround suppression. Suppression is greatest when the surrounding stimulus has the same orientation and spatial frequency (SF) as the central target. Although spatial attention has been shown to influence surround suppression, the effects of feature-based attention have yet to be characterized. Using behavioral contrast adaptation in humans, we examined center-surround interactions between SF and orientation, and asked whether attending to one feature dimension versus the other influenced suppression. A center-surround triplet comprised of a central target Gabor and two flanking Gabors were used for adaptation. The flankers could have the same SF and orientation as the target, or differ in one or both of the feature dimensions. Contrast thresholds were measured for the target before and after adapting to center-surround triplets, and postadaptation thresholds were taken as an indirect measure of surround suppression. Both feature dimensions contributed to surround suppression and did not summate. Moreover, when center and surround had the same feature value in one dimension (e.g., same orientation) but had different values in the other dimension (e.g., different SF), there was more suppression when attention was directed to the feature dimension that matched between center and surround than when attention was directed to the feature dimension that differed. These results demonstrate that feature-based attention can influence center-surround interactions by enhancing the effects of the attended dimension. © 2015 ARVO.
    Journal of Vision 01/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1167/15.1.29 · 2.73 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from