Nasal CPAP reduces systemic blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea and mild sleepiness.

Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong.
Thorax (Impact Factor: 8.56). 12/2006; 61(12):1083-90. DOI: 10.1136/thx.2006.064063
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A randomised controlled study was undertaken to examine the effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on 24 hour systemic blood pressure (BP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA).
Patients were fitted with an ambulatory BP measuring device as outpatients during normal activities and recorded for 24 hours before starting therapeutic or subtherapeutic (4 cm H(2)O) CPAP treatment. BP monitoring was repeated before completion of 12 weeks of treatment. The primary end point was the change in 24 hour mean BP.
Twenty three of 28 participants in each treatment arm completed the study. There was no significant difference between the two groups in age, body mass index, Epworth Sleepiness Score, apnoea-hypopnoea index, arousal index, and minimum Sao(2). Twenty four patients were hypertensive. The pressure in the therapeutic CPAP group was 10.7 (0.4) cm H(2)O. CPAP usage was 5.1 (0.4) and 2.6 (0.4) hours/night for the therapeutic and subtherapeutic CPAP groups, respectively (p<0.001). After 12 weeks of treatment there were significant differences between the two CPAP groups in mean (SE) changes in 24 hour diastolic BP (-2.4 (1.2) v 1.1 (1.0) mm Hg (95% CI -6.6 to -0.5), p = 0.025); 24 hour mean BP (-2.5 (1.3) v 1.3 (1.1) mm Hg (95% CI -7.2 to -0.2), p = 0.037); sleep time systolic BP (-4.1 (2.1) v 2.2 (1.8) mm Hg (95% CI -11.8 to -0.7), p = 0.028); and sleep time mean BP (-3.6 (1.7) v 1.3 (1.4) mm Hg (95% CI -9.2 to -0.4), p = 0.033).
Compared with subtherapeutic CPAP, 12 weeks of treatment with therapeutic CPAP leads to reductions in 24 hour mean and diastolic BP by 3.8 mm Hg and 3.5 mm Hg, respectively, in mildly sleepy patients with OSA.

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    ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is closely associated with hypertension. Activity of angiotensin II (Ang II) and non-dipping nocturnal blood pressure (BP) variability are implicated in hypertension-related target organ damage. We examined the correlation between OSAS with serum Ang II levels and evaluated the risk of non-dipping BP variability in 180 patients with essential hypertension (EHT). Eligible patients were divided into three subgroups based on their apneahypopnea index (AHI) evaluated by polysomnography. EHT alone, EHT with mild OSAS, and EHT with moderate/severe OSAS. Ambulatory BP monitoring was used to calculate mean BP over 24 h, as well as diurnal and nocturnal BP variability. Serum Ang II was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. EHT patients with OSAS had significantly higher systolic BP calculated either over 24 h, or by diurnal or nocturnal monitoring (P < 0.05). More EHT patients with OSAS showed non-dipping BP profiles than did EHT patients alone (P < 0.05). The number of patients with non-dipping BP increased with increasing OSAS severity. Surgical treatment alleviated OSAS and reduced AHI (P < 0.05). Preoperative serum Ang II in EHT patients with OSAS was significantly higher than that in those without OSAS (P < 0.05), and showed a rising trend with OSAS severity (P < 0.05). Postoperative serum Ang II, BP and the incidence of non-dipping BP were reduced by surgery to levels lower than preoperative values in patients with OSAS. We therefore conclude that OSAS leads to increased serum Ang II and increased risk of non-dipping BP in patients with EHT.
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    Journal of Hypertension 06/2014; 32(9). DOI:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000250 · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: More than 70% of patients with resistant hypertension have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, there is little evidence about the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension. To assess the effect of CPAP treatment on blood pressure values and nocturnal blood pressure patterns in patients with resistant hypertension and OSA. Open-label, randomized, multicenter clinical trial of parallel groups with blinded end point design conducted in 24 teaching hospitals in Spain involving 194 patients with resistant hypertension and an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 15 or higher. Data were collected from June 2009 to October 2011. CPAP or no therapy while maintaining usual blood pressure control medication. The primary end point was the change in 24-hour mean blood pressure after 12 weeks. Secondary end points included changes in other blood pressure values and changes in nocturnal blood pressure patterns. Both intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol analyses were performed. A total of 194 patients were randomly assigned to receive CPAP (n = 98) or no CPAP (control; n = 96). The mean AHI was 40.4 (SD, 18.9) and an average of 3.8 antihypertensive drugs were taken per patient. Baseline 24-hour mean blood pressure was 103.4 mm Hg; systolic blood pressure (SBP), 144.2 mm Hg; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), 83 mm Hg. At baseline, 25.8% of patients displayed a dipper pattern (a decrease of at least 10% in the average nighttime blood pressure compared with the average daytime blood pressure). The percentage of patients using CPAP for 4 or more hours per day was 72.4%. When the changes in blood pressure over the study period were compared between groups by ITT, the CPAP group achieved a greater decrease in 24-hour mean blood pressure (3.1 mm Hg [95% CI, 0.6 to 5.6]; P = .02) and 24-hour DBP (3.2 mm Hg [95% CI, 1.0 to 5.4]; P = .005), but not in 24-hour SBP (3.1 mm Hg [95% CI, -0.6 to 6.7]; P = .10) compared with the control group. Moreover, the percentage of patients displaying a nocturnal blood pressure dipper pattern at the 12-week follow-up was greater in the CPAP group than in the control group (35.9% vs 21.6%; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.4 [95% CI, 1.2 to 5.1]; P = .02). There was a significant positive correlation between hours of CPAP use and the decrease in 24-hour mean blood pressure (r = 0.29, P = .006), SBP (r = 0.25; P = .02), and DBP (r = 0.30, P = .005). Among patients with OSA and resistant hypertension, CPAP treatment for 12 weeks compared with control resulted in a decrease in 24-hour mean and diastolic blood pressure and an improvement in the nocturnal blood pressure pattern. Further research is warranted to assess longer-term health outcomes. Identifier: NCT00616265.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 12/2013; 310(22):2407-15. DOI:10.1001/jama.2013.281250 · 29.98 Impact Factor


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