Electroconvulsive seizure increases adult hippocampal angiogenesis in rats.
ABSTRACT Electroconvulsive seizure has a proven therapeutic application in the treatment of severe depression and treatment-resistant depression. Despite the efficacy of electroconvulsive seizure as a non-chemical antidepressant treatment, the mechanism of action is unclear. Elevation in hippocampal trophic factor expression and concomitant cellular proliferation are thought to play a role in its action. We examined whether the reported induction of angiogenic factors and endothelial cell proliferation leads to an increase in vascular density. Two hippocampal regions, the dentate gyrus and the stratum lacunosum moleculare (SLM), were examined employing a combination of vascular density quantification, angiogenic gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry. A 6% increase in vascular density was observed in the dentate gyrus but this did not achieve statistical significance. The SLM of the hippocampus exhibited a robust 20-30% increase in vascular density and was accompanied by an increase in expression of inhibitor of differentiation-3. There was also an induction of the angiogenesis markers alphaVbeta3 integrin and Del1. Increases in the vascular density of the SLM could be in response to enhanced metabolic activity in this region. This is supported by the induction of glutamine synthetase and the glutamate transporter GLT1.
SourceAvailable from: Seiji Miyata[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: New neurons are continuously added to hippocampal circuitry involved with spatial learning and memory throughout life. These new neurons originate from neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG). Recent studies indicate that vascular reconstruction is closely connected with neurogenesis, but little is known about its mechanism. We have examined vascular reconstruction in the hippocampus of adult mouse brain after the administration of the antidepressant fluoxetine, a potent inducer of hippocampal neurogenesis. The immunohistochemistry of laminin and CD31 showed that filopodia of endothelial cells sprouted from existing thick microvessels and often formed a bridge between two thick microvessels. These filopodia were frequently seen at the molecular layer and dentate hilus of the DG, the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of the CA1, and the stratum oriens of the CA3. The filopodia were exclusively localized along cellular processes of astrocytes, but such intimate association was not seen with cell bodies and processes of NSPCs. The administration of fluoxetine significantly increased vascular density by enlarging the luminal size of microvessels and eliminating the filopodia of endothelial cells in the molecular layer and dentate hilus. Treatment with fluoxetine increased the number of proliferating NSPCs in the granule cell layer and dentate hilus, and that of endothelial cells in the granule cell layer. Thus, antidepressant-induced vascular dynamics in the DG are possibly attributable to the alteration of the luminal size of microvessels rather than to proliferation of endothelial cells.Cell and Tissue Research 06/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00441-014-1933-6 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Speculations on the involvement of hippocampal neurogenesis, a form of neuronal plasticity, in the aetiology of depression and the mode of action of antidepressive therapies, started to arise more than a decade ago. But still, conclusive evidence that adult neurogenesis contributes to antidepressive effects of pharmacological and physical therapies has not been generated yet. This review revisits recent findings on the close relation between the mode(s) of action of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a powerful intervention used as second-line treatment of major depression disorders, and the neurogenic response to ECT. Following application of electroconvulsive shocks, intricate interactions between neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and microglia activation, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the secretion of neurotrophic factors have been documented. Furthermore, considering the fact that neurogenesis strongly diminishes along aging, we investigated the response to electroconvulsive shocks in young as well as in aged cohorts of mice.Neural Plasticity 05/2014; 2014:723915. DOI:10.1155/2014/723915 · 3.60 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption has been associated with several acute and chronic brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. This represents a critical situation because damaged integrity of the BBB is related to the influx of immune mediators, plasma proteins and other outside elements from blood to the central nervous system (CNS) that may trigger a cascade of events that leads to neuroinflammation. In this review, evidence that mast cells and the release of factors such as histamine play an important role in the neuroinflammatory process associated with brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy is presented. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Archives of Medical Research 11/2014; 45(8). DOI:10.1016/j.arcmed.2014.11.010 · 2.41 Impact Factor