Mycophenolate mofetil and sirolimus combination in renal transplantation.

Servei de Nefrologia, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, University of Barcelona, Feixa Llarga s/n, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08907 Barcelona, Spain.
American Journal of Transplantation (Impact Factor: 6.19). 10/2006; 6(9):1991-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2006.01398.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and sirolimus (SRL) are potent non-nephrotoxic xenobiotic immunosuppressants. Their complementary properties may provide the rationale for their combination in induction and maintenance regimens. MMF, a reversible inhibitor of inosin monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) acts as an antiproliferative drug; and SRL, an mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor, inhibits cell proliferation driven by growth factors. Early experiences with the use of the SRL, MMF and steroid combination yielded insufficient prophylaxis of acute rejection. However, the introduction of induction therapy with mono- or polyclonal antilymphocyte antibodies to the SRL-MMF and steroid combination brings an efficient acute rejection prophylaxis, while improving renal function and/or reducing of chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). However, adverse events related to the use of this drug combination (mainly haematological and surgery-related) result in a high rate of discontinuations in some trials, which may hamper the potential benefits of this calcineurin-inhibitor (CNI)-free strategy. Also, currently under investigation is whether in long-term immunosuppression, in MMF-treated patients, CNIs can be replaced by SRL to avoid and/or halt progression of chronic nephropathy and to improve graft survival. However, some authors reported a high proportion of patients with oral ulcers and proteinuria after switching to SRL. In short, refining the use of MMF and SRL may provide a better risk/benefit ratio to pave the way towards non-nephrotoxic immunosuppression.

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    ABSTRACT: Everolimus allows calcineurin-inhibitor reduction without loss of efficacy and may improve renal-transplant outcomes. In a 24-month, open-label study, 833 de novo renal-transplant recipients were randomized to everolimus 1.5 or 3.0 mg/day (target troughs 3-8 and 6-12 ng/mL, respectively) with reduced-exposure CsA, or mycophenolic acid (MPA) 1.44 g/day plus standard-exposure CsA. Patients received basiliximab +/- corticosteroids. The primary endpoint was composite efficacy failure (treated biopsy-proven acute rejection, graft loss, death or loss to follow-up) and the main safety endpoint was renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease [MDRD]) at Month 12 (last-observation-carried-forward analyses). Month 12 efficacy failure rates were noninferior in the everolimus 1.5 mg (25.3%) and 3.0 mg (21.9%) versus MPA (24.2%) groups. Mean eGFR at Month 12 was noninferior in the everolimus groups versus the MPA group (54.6 and 51.3 vs 52.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in the everolimus 1.5 mg, 3.0 mg and MPA groups, respectively; 95% confidence intervals for everolimus 1.5 mg and 3.0 mg vs MPA: -1.7, 6.4 and -5.0, 3.2, respectively). The overall incidence of adverse events was comparable between groups. The use of everolimus with progressive reduction in CsA exposure, up to 60% at 1 year, resulted in similar efficacy and renal function compared with standard-exposure CsA plus MPA.
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    ABSTRACT: Although current immunosuppression is highly effective in avoiding acute rejection, it is associated with nephrotoxicity, cardiovascular morbidity, infection, and cancer. Thus, new drugs dealing with new mechanisms, as well as minimizing comorbidities, are warranted in renal transplantation. Few novel drugs are currently under investigation in Phase I, II, or III clinical trials. Belatacept is a humanized antibody that inhibits T-cell co-stimulation and has shown encouraging results in Phase II and III trials. Moreover, two new small molecules are under clinical development: AEB071 or sotrastaurin (a protein kinase C inhibitor) and CP-690550 or tasocitinib (a Janus kinase inhibitor). Refinement in selecting the best combinations for the new and current immunosuppressive agents is probably the main challenge for the next few years.
    Kidney International Supplements. 08/2011; 1(2):47-51.