Major and minor depression in Parkinson's disease: a neuropsychological investigation.
ABSTRACT Previous studies have failed to distinguish the differential contribution of major and minor depression to cognitive impairment in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). This study was aimed at investigating the relationships among major depression (MD), minor depression (MiD) and neuropsychological deficits in PD. Eighty-three patients suffering from PD participated in the study. MD and MiD were diagnosed by means of a structured interview (SCID-I) based on the DSM-IV criteria, and severity of depression was evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory. For the neuropsychological assessment, we used standardized scales that measure verbal and visual episodic memory, working memory, executive functions, abstract reasoning and visual-spatial and language abilities. MD patients performed worse than PD patients without depression on two long-term verbal episodic memory tasks, on an abstract reasoning task and on three measures of executive functioning. The MiD patients' performances on the same tests fell between those of the other two groups of PD patients but did not show significant differences. Our results indicate that MD in PD is associated with a qualitatively specific neuropsychological profile that may be related to an alteration of prefrontal and limbic cortical areas. Moreover, the same data suggest that in these patients MiD and MD may represent a gradual continuum associated with increasing cognitive deficits.
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ABSTRACT: Language impairment is relatively common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but not all PD patients are susceptible to language problems. In this study, we identified among a sample of PD patients those pre-disposed to language impairment, describe their clinical profiles, and consider factors that may precipitate language disability in these patients. A cross-sectional cohort of 31 PD patients and 20 controls were administered the Chinese version of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) to assess language abilities, and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to determine cognitive status. PD patients were then apportioned to a language-impaired PD (LI-PD) group or a PD group with no language impairment (NLI-PD). Performance on the WAB and MoCA was investigated for correlation with the aphasia quotient deterioration rate (AQDR). The PD patients scored significantly lower on most of the WAB subtests than did the controls. The aphasia quotient, cortical quotient, and spontaneous speech and naming subtests of the WAB were significantly different between LI-PD and NLI-PD groups. The AQDR scores significantly and positively correlated with age at onset and motor function deterioration. A subset group was susceptible to language dysfunction, a major deficit in spontaneous speech. Once established, dysphasia progression is closely associated with age at onset and motor disability progression.
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) has been associated with facial expression recognition difficulties. However, this impairment could be secondary to the one produced in other cognitive processes involved in recognition, such as selective attention. This study investigates the influence of two selective attention components (inhibition and visual search) on facial expression recognition in PD. We compared facial expression and non-emotional stimuli recognition abilities of 51 patients and 51 healthy controls, by means of an adapted Stroop task, and by "The Face in the Crowd" paradigm, which assess Inhibition and Visual Search abilities, respectively. Patients scored worse than controls in both tasks with facial expressions, but not with the other nonemotional stimuli, indicating specific emotional recognition impairment, not dependent on selective attention abilities. This should be taken into account in patients' neuropsychological assessment given the relevance of emotional facial expression for social communication in everyday settings.Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 04/2014; 29(4). DOI:10.1093/arclin/acu018 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the moderating influence of apathy, depression and transient mood changes on executive functions under best medical treatment and under postoperative stimulation-on and -off conditions in a sample of 33 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) after deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), 33 PD patients with pharmacological treatment only and 34 healthy controls. In comparison to clinical and healthy control groups, DBS patients showed worse executive task performance and also more severe symptoms of depression and apathy. Apathy accounted for differences in stroop interference between groups. The effects of DBS on stroop interference were explained by increased state anxiety in the -off, so that DBS STN had no significant influence on test performance. Consideration of neuropsychiatric symptoms and acute mood changes is an important aspect when evaluating neuropsychological deficits in DBS patients.Fortschritte der Neurologie · Psychiatrie 07/2014; 82(7):386-93. DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1366460 · 0.76 Impact Factor