Interactions between chemokines and chemokine receptors are involved in migration and invasion of lymphoma cells. We investigated expression profiles of CXCR3 and CCR4 by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, and their biologic behaviors by real-time horizontal chemotaxis assay in cutaneous T cell and NK/T-cell lymphomas (TCLs). Tumor cells in mycosis fungoides (MF) constantly expressed CXCR3 at the patch stage, and expressed CCR4 at the tumor stage and in the folliculotropic variant of MF. Neoplastic cells at the plaque stage expressed CXCR3 and/or CCR4. Sezary cells in the dermis and circulation were positive for CCR4. Epidermotropic atypical cells in pagetoid reticulosis expressed CXCR3. CD30 cells exclusively expressed CCR4 in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, and CXCR3 and/or CCR4 in lymphomatoid papulosis. In CD8TCL and extranodal NK/TCL characterized by extensive epidermotropism, tumor cells were positive for CXCR3. These data demonstrated preferential expression of CXCR3 in epidermotropic tumor cells, and of CCR4 in dermis-based lymphomas. In chemotaxis assays, CCR4 tumor cells in MF and CXCR3 tumor cells in CD8TCL migrated to thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and inducible protein-10, respectively. Therefore, spatial and temporal interactions between chemokine receptors and their ligands seem to dictate recruitment and retention of lymphoma cells in the skin.
"Certain studies have identified that, among ENKTCL-N patients, the higher the Ki-67 proliferation index, the worse the prognosis (22). Other relevant abnormal expression proteins have also been reported, including nuclear factor κB, chemokine ligand 9, G-protein signaling regulator 2, Bcl-2, induced myeloid leukemia cell differentiation protein, platelet-derived growth factor receptor and ubiquitin activating enzyme E1 (23–27). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study reports a case of extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, involving the skin. The clinical manifestations, pathological characteristics, treatment and prognosis of the case were analyzed to improve the clinical diagnosis and treatment for this disease. The patient was a 56-year-old male, presenting with dark red nodules and plaques that had been visible on the nose for half a year. Based on the skin lesions and histopathological and immunohistochemical examination results, the patient was diagnosed with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. This disease has unique histopathological and immunohistochemical features and a high malignancy. The condition tends to be misdiagnosed and has a poor prognosis, but seldom involves the skin. In the present case, only radiotherapy was performed, with no relapse occurring within 6 months.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mature natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms are classified by the World Health Organization into NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (NKTCL), aggressive NK-cell leukemia (ANKCL) and chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK-cells, the latter being considered provisionally. NKTCL and ANKCL are rare diseases, with higher prevalence in Asia, Central and South America. Most NKTCL present extranodal, as destructive tumor affecting the nose and upper aerodigestive tract (nasal NKTCL) or any organ or tissue (extranasal NKTCL) whereas ANKCL manifests as a systemic disease with multiorgan involvement and naturally evolutes to death in a few weeks. The histopathological hallmark of these aggressive NK-cell tumors is a polymorphic neoplastic infiltrate with angiocentricity, angiodestruction and tissue necrosis. The tumor cells have cytoplasmatic azurophilic granules and usually show a CD45+bright, CD2+, sCD3-, cytCD3epsilon+, CD56+bright, CD16-/+, cytotoxic granules molecules+ phenotype. T-cell receptor genes are in germ-line configuration. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) -encoded membrane proteins and early region EBV RNA are usually detected on lymphoma cells, with a pattern suggestive of a latent viral infection type II. Complex chromosomal abnormalities are frequent and loss of chromosomes 6q, 11q, 13q, and 17p are recurrent aberrations. The rarity of the NK-cell tumors limits our ability to standardize the procedures for the diagnosis and clinical management and efforts should be made to encourage multi-institutional registries.
"CXCR3 mRNA expression was significantly elevated in lesional skin of early and advanced CTCL compared with normal skin (Po0.05 and 0.05, respectively; Figure 3b), whereas CCR4 mRNA expression was significantly elevated only in advanced CTCL compared with normal skin (Po0.05; Figure 3b). These results are consistent with previous reports (Kakinuma et al., 2003; Yagi et al., 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LIGHT (lymphotoxin-like, exhibits inducible expression, and competes with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D for herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes) is a ligand for HVEM. LIGHT-HVEM interactions are important in T helper type 1 (Th1) immune responses. In some cases with early stages of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL), IL-2, IFN-γ, and Th1 chemokines are expressed in lesional skin, while IL-4, IL-5, and Th2 chemokines are dominant in advanced CTCL. In this study, we investigated roles of LIGHT and HVEM in the microenvironment of CTCL. LIGHT enhanced production of Th1 chemokines, such as CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, from IFN-γ-treated dermal fibroblasts via phosphorylation of inhibitor κBα. Messenger RNA levels of these chemokines were increased in lesional skin of early CTCL. Interestingly, while LIGHT expression in CTCL skin correlated with disease progression, HVEM expression was significantly decreased in advanced CTCL skin. HVEM was detected in dermal fibroblasts in early CTCL skin, but not in advanced CTCL skin in situ. These results suggest that low HVEM expression on dermal fibroblasts in advanced CTCL skin attenuates expression of Th1 chemokines, which may contribute to a shift to a Th2-dominant microenvironment as disease progresses.
Kellie B Haworth, Michael A Arnold, Christopher R Pierson, Jennifer L Leddon, Dias K Kurmashev, Hayley M Swain, Brian J Hutzen, Ryan D Roberts, Timothy P Cripe,
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.