Clinical Implications for the Treatment of Obesity

Center for Obesity Research and Education, Temple University, 3223 North Broad Street, Suite 175, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.
Obesity (Impact Factor: 4.39). 08/2006; 14 Suppl 4(S7):182S-185S. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2006.303
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Similar findings are observed in studies that compare meal replacements (37, 38, 39, 40) or prepackaged entrees (41, 42) with self-selected diets. These studies suggest that replacing two of three meals with a liquid and/or solid meal replacement or at least two meals with a portion-controlled entrée result in greater weight loss than traditional self-selected diets and an improved nutrient intake profile (i.e., decreased dietary fat intake and improved micronutrient intake) with the exception of fiber intake, which may be low if diets using meal replacements are not supplemented with high-fiber foods (43). Although some weight regain is observed over time, a greater reduction in weight is observed even up to 4 years in individuals receiving meal replacements (38). Based on a meta-analysis by Heymsfield et al. (44), individuals consuming meal replacements lose ∼7% to 8% body weight, whereas those on a standard self-selected diet lose 3% to 7% body weight at 1 year. It is unclear, however, whether meal replacements are superior to other structured weight loss approaches that provide menus and recipes. Noakes et al. (43) found similar decreases in weight in individuals using meal replacements (9.0 kg or −9.4% body weight) and following structured diets (9.2 kg or 9.3% body weight) for 6 months (43). These findings suggests that guidance in making food choices and/or determining portion size may improve compliance to a dietary plan and make following an energy-restricted diet easier.

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Available from: Gary D Foster, Aug 04, 2015
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    • "Para manter o peso e a composição corporal durante os anos é imprescindível um balanço energético preciso que resulte no equilíbrio entre a ingestão calórica e o gasto energético (Schutz, 1995). Com isto, as estratégias utilizadas para redução do peso corporal baseiam-se na obtenção de déficit na balança energética, alcançado pela adoção de hábitos alimentares saudáveis (Foster, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Effect of diet and physical activity in the body composition in women The intake and energy expenditure resulting in energy balance, when it is unbalanced, can take accumulate or reduction of fat reserves corporal. To ascertain the effect of a calorie-restricted diet associated with physical activity on body composition in women. The study was conducted with eight individuals, all female (age 30.25 ± 6.73 years, 1.62 ± 0.06 cm). Anthropometric measurements were performed according to protocol Petroski (1999). To measure the height, we used a stadiometer accurate to 0.1 cm for body mass (BM) a balance of 100 g precision. From the height and BM was obtained BMI. To measure the perimeters used a tape measure anthropometric fiberglass, and obtained the waist to hip ratio (WHR). To estimate the body density (BD) was used equation Jackson and J Pollock (1980). From the BD was obtained the fat percentage using the equation of Siri (1961). Descriptive analysis were used the mean and standard deviation for the presentation of results. The paired Student t test was used to compare variables before and after 12 weeks. The results can be observed a significant decrease in body mass, fat percentage, BMI and WHR. Furthermore, we observed a significant increase in lean body mass.
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    • "The role of exercise on body weight maintenance is considered important (Foster, 2006; Jequier, 2002), but there is no recommendation based on well designed randomized controlled trial. Redman et al. (2007) compared the effects of a 25% energy deficit by diet alone or diet plus exercise in 35 overweight subjects during 6 months. "
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    ABSTRACT: The study investigated the effectiveness of home-based exercise combined with a slight caloric restriction on weight change during 12 months in non-obese women. A randomized clinical trial with a factorial design was conducted from 2003 to 2005. Two hundred three middle-aged women (Rio de Janeiro/Brazil), 25-45 years, were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (CG) and home-based exercise (HB). The HB group received a booklet on aerobic exercise that could be practiced at home (3 times/week-40 min/session), in low-moderate intensity, during 12 months. Both groups received dietary counseling aimed at a slight energy restriction of 100-300 calories per day. The HB experienced a greater weight loss in the first 6 months (-1.4 vs. -0.8 kg; p=0.04), but after 12 months there was no differences between groups (-1.1 vs. -1.0; p=0.20). Of the serum biochemical markers, HDL cholesterol showed major change, with an increase at month 12 of 18.3mg/dl in the HB compared to 9.5 in the CG (p<0.01). Home-based exercise promoted greater weight reduction during the first 6 months after which no further benefits are observed. Continuous favorable changes in HDL cholesterol after 1 year suggest that home-based exercise promote health benefits.
    Preventive Medicine 09/2010; 51(3-4):247-52. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.07.012 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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