Cell-line and tissue-specific signatures of androgen receptor-coregulator transcription.
ABSTRACT Normal genital skin fibroblasts (GSF) and the human prostate carcinoma cell line LNCaP have been used widely as cell culture models of genital origin to study androgen receptor (AR) signaling. We demonstrate that LNCaP shows a reproducible response to androgens as assessed using cDNA-microarrays representing approximately 32,000 unique human genes, whereas several independent GSF strains are virtually unresponsive. We show that LNCaP cells express markedly higher AR protein levels likely contributing to the observed differences of androgen responsiveness. However, previous data suggested that AR-expression levels alone do not determine androgen responsiveness of human GSF compared to LNCaP. We hypothesized that cell-specific differences in expression levels of AR coregulators might contribute to differences in androgen responsiveness and might be found by comparing LNCaP and GSFs. Using the Canadian McGill-database of AR coregulators ( http://www.mcgill.ca/androgendb ), we identified 61 AR-coregulator genes represented by 282 transcripts on our microarray platform that was used to measure transcript profiles of LNCaP and GSF cells. Baseline expression levels of 48 AR-coregulator transcripts representing 33 distinct genes showed significant differences between GSF and LNCaP, four of which we confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Compared to LNCaP, GSFs displayed significant upregulation of AR coregulators that can function as repressors of AR-transactivation, such as caveolin 1. Analysis of a recently published comprehensive dataset of 115 microarrays representing 35 different human tissues revealed tissue-specific signatures of AR coregulators that segregated with ontogenetically related groups of tissues (e.g., lymphatic system and genital tissues, brain). Our data demonstrate the existence of cell-line and tissue-specific expression patterns of molecules with documented AR coregulatory functions. Therefore, differential expression patterns of AR coregulators could modify tissue-specificity and diversity of androgen actions in development, physiology, and disease.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: James D Brooks, Aug 05, 2014
SourceAvailable from: Peyman Tavassoli
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) plays a central role in salt and water homeostasis via the kidney; however, inappropriate activation of the MR in the heart can lead to heart failure. A selective MR modulator that antagonizes MR signaling in the heart but not the kidney would provide the cardiovascular protection of current MR antagonists but allow for normal electrolyte balance. The development of such a pharmaceutical requires an understanding of coregulators and their tissue-selective interactions with the MR, which is currently limited by the small repertoire of MR coregulators described in the literature. To identify potential novel MR coregulators, we used T7 phage display to screen tissue-selective cDNA libraries for MR-interacting proteins. Thirty MR binding peptides were identified, from which three were chosen for further characterization based on their nuclear localization and their interaction with other MR-interacting proteins, or in the case of XRCC6, its known status as an androgen receptor coregulator. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A1 (EEF1A1), structure-specific recognition protein 1 (SSRP1), and x-ray repair cross-complementing protein 6 (XRCC6) modulated MR-mediated transcription in a ligand-, cell- and/or promoter-specific manner, and co-localized with the MR upon agonist treatment when imaged using immunofluorescence microscopy. These results highlight the utility of phage display for rapid and sensitive screening of MR binding proteins, and suggest that EEF1A1, SSRP1 and XRCC6 may be potential MR coactivators whose activity is dependent on ligand, cellular context and target gene promoter.Molecular Endocrinology 07/2014; 28(9):me20141101. DOI:10.1210/me.2014-1101 · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is extensive knowledge of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in cancer cells, but less regarding androgen action in stromal cells of the tumor microenvironment. We report here the genome-wide effects of a stromal cell specific molecular adapter and AR coregulator, hydrogen peroxide-inducible gene 5 (Hic-5/TGFB1I1), on AR function in prostate myofibroblasts. Following androgen stimulation, Hic-5 rapidly translocates to the nucleus, coincident with increased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase. As a coregulator, Hic-5 acted to amplify or inhibit regulation of approximately 50% of AR target genes, affected androgen regulation of growth, cell adhesion, motility and invasion. These data suggest Hic-5 as a transferable adaptor between focal adhesions and the nucleus of prostate myofibroblasts, where it acts a key mediator of the specificity and sensitivity of AR signaling. We propose a model in which Hic-5 coordinates AR signaling with adhesion and extracellular matrix contacts to regulate cell behavior in the tumor microenvironment.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2014.01.004 · 4.24 Impact Factor