A new model of cystic fibrosis pathology: lack of transport of glutathione and its thiocyanate conjugates.

Share International Foundation, 1720 205th Pl NE, Sammamish, WA 98074, USA.
Medical Hypotheses (Impact Factor: 1.18). 02/2007; 68(1):101-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2006.06.020
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Many of the symptoms of cystic fibrosis are not explained by the current disease mechanisms. Therefore, the authors conducted an extensive literature review and present a new model of cystic fibrosis pathology, which is the culmination of this research. Understanding that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is responsible for glutathione (GSH) transport, the authors hypothesize that mutations of the CFTR, which create abnormal GSH transport, will lead to aberrations of GSH levels in both the intracellular as well as the extracellular milieu. These alterations in normal cellular GSH levels affect the redox state of the cell, thereby affecting the intracellular stress protein, metallothionein. The authors describe how this disruption of the redox state caused by excess cellular GSH, will naturally prevent the delivery of zinc as a cofactor for various enzymatic processes, and how these disruptions in normal redox may cause alterations in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Moreover, the symptom of thick sticky mucus in these patients might be explained through the understanding that oversulfation of mucus is a direct result of elevated cellular GSH and cysteine. The issues of hyperinflammation, altered pH and the imbalance of fatty acids that are typical in cystic fibrosis are addressed-all of which may also be linked to disruptions in GSH homeostasis. Additionally, this new model of cystic fibrosis pathology, clarifies the relationship between the CFTR and the multi-drug resistance proteins, and the lack of cell-mediated immunity by predicting that the substrate of these proteins is a glutathione adduct of thiocyanate. Finally, a new therapeutic strategy by using isothiocyanates to rectify the GSH imbalance and restore the immune system is suggested for the treatment of cystic fibrosis patients.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Motivation. Membrane proteins play essential roles in cellular processes of organisms. Photosynthesis, transport of ions and small molecules, signal transduction, and light harvesting are examples of processes which are realised by membrane proteins and contribute to a cell's specificity and functionality. The analysis of membrane proteins has shown to be an important part in the understanding of complex biological processes. Genome-wide investigations of membrane proteins have revealed a large number of short, distinct sequence motifs. Results. The in silico analysis of 32 membrane protein families with domains of unknown functions discussed in this study led to a novel approach which describes the separation of motifs by residue-specific distributions. Based on these distributions, the topology structure of the majority of motifs in hypothesised membrane proteins with unknown topology can be predicted. Conclusion. We hypothesise that short sequence motifs can be separated into structure-forming motifs on the one hand, as such motifs show high prediction accuracy in all investigated protein families. This points to their general importance in íµí»¼-helical membrane protein structure formation and interaction mediation. On the other hand, motifs which show high prediction accuracies only in certain families can be classified as functionally important and relevant for family-specific functional characteristics.
    Structural Biology. 01/2013;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Over the years, anthropogenic factors have led to cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the environment causing various health problems in humans. Although Cd is not a Fenton-like metal, it induces oxidative stress in various animal models via indirect mechanisms. The degree of Cd-induced oxidative stress depends on the dose, duration and frequency of Cd exposure. Also the presence or absence of serum in experimental conditions, type of cells and their antioxidant capacity, as well as the speciation of Cd are important determinants. At the cellular level, the Cd-induced oxidative stress either leads to oxidative damage or activates signal transduction pathways to initiate defence responses. This balance is important on how different organ systems respond to Cd stress and ultimately define the pathological outcome. In this review, we highlight the Cd-induced oxidant/antioxidant status as well as the damage versus signalling scenario in relation to Cd toxicity. Emphasis is addressed to Cd-induced pathologies of major target organs, including a section on cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. Furthermore, attention is paid to Cd-induced oxidative stress in undifferentiated stem cells, which can provide information for future therapies in preventing Cd-induced pathologies.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2013; 14(3):6116-6143. · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In genomics and proteomics, membrane protein analysis have shown that such analyses are very important to support the understanding of complex biological processes. In Genome-wide investigations of membrane proteins a large number of short, distinct sequence motifs has been revealed. Such motifs found so far support the understanding of the folded membrane protein in the membrane environment. They provide important information about functional or stabilizing properties. Recently several integrative approaches have been proposed to extract meaningful information out of the membrane environment. However, many information based approaches deliver results having deficits of visualisation outputs. Outgoing from high-throughput protein data analysis, these outputs play an important role in the evaluation of high-dimensional protein data, to establish a biological relationship and ultimately to provide useful information for research. We have evaluated different resulting graphs generated from statistical analysis of consecutive motifs in helical structures of the membrane environment. Our results show that representative motifs with high occurrence in all investigated protein families are responsible for the general importance in alpha-helical membrane structure formation. Further, motifs which often occur with others in their function as so called "hubs" lead to the assumption, that these motifs constitute as important components in helical structures within the membrane. Otherwise, consecutive motifs and hubs which show a high occurrence in certain families only can be classified as important for family-specific functional characteristics. Summarized, we are able to bridge our graphical results from high-throughput analysis of membrane proteins over networking with databases to a biological context. Our results and the corresponding graphical visualisation support the understanding and interpretation of structure forming and functional motifs of membrane proteins. Our results are useful to interpret and refine results of common developed approaches. At last we show a simple way to visualise high-dimensional protein data in context to biological relevant information.
    BioData Mining 12/2013; 6(1):21.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 16, 2014