Article

R5- and X4-HIV-1 use differentially the endometrial epithelial cells HEC-1A to ensure their own spread: implication for mechanisms of sexual transmission.

Unité INSERM U743 Equipe Immunité et Biothérapie Muqueuse, Centre de Recherches Biomédicales des Cordeliers, Paris, Cedex 06, France. <>
Virology (Impact Factor: 3.28). 03/2007; 358(1):55-68. DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2006.07.029
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The mechanism of viral transmission across the mucosal barrier is poorly understood. Using the endometrial epithelium-derived cell line HEC-1A, we found that the cells are capable of sequestering large numbers of HIV-1 particles but are refractory to cell-free viral infection. The removal of heparan sulfate moieties of cell-surface proteoglycans (HSPG) from the apical pole of HEC-1A accounted for at least 60% of both R5- and X4-HIV-1 attachment, showing their important implication in viral attachment. HEC-1A cells also have the capacity to endocytose a weak proportion of the attached virus and pass it along to underlying cells. Fucose, N-acetylglucosamine and mannosylated-residues inhibited the transcytosis of some virus isolates, suggesting that mannose receptors can be implicated on the both R5- and X4-HIV-1 transcytosis. The inhibition of HIV transcytosis by blocking CCR5 mAb suggests the implication of specific interaction between the viral gp120 and sulfated moiety of syndecans during the transcytosis of mostly R5- and X4-HIV-1. At the basolateral pole of HEC-1A, HSPG sequestered X4- and not R5-HIV-1, highlighting the important role of HEC-1A as an X4 virus reservoir. The cell-free virus particles that have transcytosed could infect activated T cells but with a weaker efficiency than virus that had not transcytosed. The specific stimulation of HEC-1A by R5-HIV-1 increased the release of monocytes/chemokines-attracting chemokines (IL-8 and GR0) and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-beta and IL-1alpha) that enhanced the production of virus by activated T cells. This study suggests that R5 and X4 viruses can differentially use epithelial cells to ensure their own spread.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
89 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Women constitute almost half of HIV-infected population globally, and the female genital tract (FGT) accounts for approximately 40% of all new HIV infections worldwide. The FGT is composed of upper and lower parts, distinct in their morphological and functional characteristics. Co-factors in the genital microenvironment, such as presence of hormones, semen, and other sexually transmitted infections, can facilitate or deter HIV infection and play a critical role in determining susceptibility to HIV. In this review, we examine some of these co-factors and their potential influence. Presence of physical and chemical barriers such as epithelial tight junctions, mucus, and anti-microbial peptides can actively block and inhibit viral replication, presenting a significant deterrent to HIV. Upon exposure, HIV and other pathogens first encounter the genital epithelium: cells that express a wide repertoire of pattern recognition receptors that can recognize and directly initiate innate immune responses. These and other interactions in the genital tract can lead to direct and indirect inflammation and enhance the number of local target cells, immune activation, and microbial translocation, all of which promote HIV infection and replication. Better understanding of the dynamics of HIV transmission in the female genital tract would be invaluable for improving the design of prophylactic strategies against HIV.
    American Journal Of Reproductive Immunology 03/2014; · 3.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While it is accepted that viruses can enter epithelial cells by endocytosis, the lack of an established biological mechanism for the trafficking of infectious virions through vaginal epithelial cells and their release from the plasma membrane has contributed to ongoing controversy about whether endocytosis is a mere artifact of some cell culture systems and whether squamous vaginal epithelial cells are even relevant as it pertains to HIV-1 transmission. In this study, we investigated the intracellular trafficking pathway that HIV-1 exploits to transcytose vaginal epithelial cells. The reduction of endosome tubulation by recycling endosome inhibitors blocked transcytosis of HIV-1 in a cell culture and transwell system. In addition, we demonstrate that although heat-inactivated virus was endocytosed as efficiently as native virus, heat-inactivated virus was trafficked exclusively to the lysosomal pathway for degradation following endocytosis. Lysosomal protease-specific inhibitors blocked the degradation of inactivated virions. Immunofluorescence analysis not only demonstrated that HIV-1 was inside the cells but the different colocalization pattern of native vs. heat inactivated virus with transferrin provided conclusive evidence that HIV-1 uses the recycling pathway to get across vaginal epithelial cells. Altogether, our findings demonstrate the precise intracellular trafficking pathway utilized by HIV-1 in epithelial cells, confirms that HIV-1 transcytosis through vaginal epithelial cells is a biological phenomenon and brings to light the differential intracellular trafficking of native vs heat-inactivated HIV-1 which with further exploration could prove to provide valuable insights that could be used in the prevention of transcytosis/transmission of HIV-1 across the mucosal epithelia.
    PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e96760. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.
    BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:20. · 2.71 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
44 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014