Resolution of Sleepiness and Fatigue in Major Depressive Disorder: A Comparison of Bupropion and the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to examine whether the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) with the norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) bupropion results in a greater resolution of sleepiness and fatigue than with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
Six double-blind, randomized clinical trials comparing bupropion (n = 662) with an SSRI (n = 655) for the treatment of MDD were pooled. Hypersomnia scores were defined as the sum of scores of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) items #22, 23, and 24. Fatigue scores were defined as the score of HDRS item #13.
There was a greater improvement in hypersomnia scores among bupropion-treated than SSRI-treated (p < .0001) or placebo-treated patients (p = .0008). There was also a greater improvement in fatigue scores among bupropion-treated (p < .0001) and SSRI-treated (p = .0005) than placebo-treated patients as well as a greater improvement in fatigue scores among bupropion-treated than SSRI-treated patients (p = .0078). Fewer bupropion-remitters than SSRI-remitters experienced residual hypersomnia (20.5% vs. 32.1%; p = .0014) or residual fatigue (19.5% vs. 30.2%; p = .0020).
Treatment of MDD with the NDRI bupropion resulted in a greater resolution of sleepiness and fatigue than SSRIs treatment. Although preliminary, these results warrant prospectively designed studies examining potential differences between bupropion and the SSRIs on these specific depressive symptoms.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Individual patients with depression present with unique symptom clusters - before, during, and even after treatment. The prevalence of persistent, unresolved symptoms and their contribution to patient functioning and disease progression emphasize the importance of finding the right treatment choice at the onset and the utility of switching medications based on suboptimal responses. Our primary goal as clinicians is to improve patient function and quality of life. In fact, feelings of well-being and the return to premorbid levels of functioning are frequently rated by patients as being more important than symptom relief. However, functional improvements often lag behind resolution of mood, attributed in large part to persistent and functionally impairing symptoms - namely, fatigue, sleep/wake disturbance, and cognitive dysfunction. Thus, patient outcomes can be optimized by deconstructing each patient's depressive profile to its component symptoms and specifically targeting those domains that differentially limit patient function. This article will provide an evidence-based framework within which clinicians may tailor pharmacotherapy to patient symptomatology for improved treatment outcomes.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2015; 11:875-88. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S73261 · 2.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: First line antidepressants are the so-called SSRI's (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), e.g. fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine and escitalopram. Unfortunately, these drugs mostly do not provide full symptom relief and have a slow onset of action. Therefore also other antidepressants are being prescribed that inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine (e.g. reboxetine, desipramine) or the reuptake of both serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (e.g. venlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran). Nevertheless, many patients encounter residual symptoms such as impaired pleasure, impaired motivation, and lack of energy. It is hypothesized that an impaired brain reward system may underlie these residual symptoms. In agreement, there is some evidence that reuptake inhibitors of both norepinephrine and dopamine (e.g. methylphenidate, bupropion, nomifensine) affect these residual symptoms. In the pipeline are new drugs that block all three monoamine transporters for the reuptake of 5-HT, norepinephrine and dopamine, the so-called triple reuptake inhibitors (TRI). The working mechanisms of the above-mentioned antidepressants are discussed, and it is speculated whether depressed patients with different symptoms, sometimes even opposite ones due to atypical or melancholic features, can be matched with the different drug treatments available. In other words, is personalized medicine for major depression an option in the near future? Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.European Journal of Pharmacology 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.11.045 · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Depression and related disorders are characterized by deficits in behavioral activation, exertion of effort, and other psychomotor/motivational dysfunctions. Depressed patients show alterations in effort-related decision making and a bias towards selection of low effort activities. It has been suggested that animal tests of effort-related decision making could be useful as models of motivational dysfunctions seen in psychopathology. Because clinical studies have suggested that inhibition of catecholamine uptake may be a useful strategy for treatment of effort-related motivational symptoms, the present research assessed the ability of bupropion to increase work output in rats responding on a test of effort-related decision-making (ie, a progressive ratio/chow feeding choice task). With this task, rats can choose between working for a preferred food (high-carbohydrate pellets) by lever pressing on a progressive ratio schedule vs obtaining a less preferred laboratory chow that is freely available in the chamber. Bupropion (10.0-40.0 mg/kg intraperitoneal) significantly increased all measures of progressive ratio lever pressing, but decreased chow intake. These effects were greatest in animals with low baseline levels of work output on the progressive ratio schedule. Because accumbens dopamine is implicated in effort-related processes, the effects of bupropion on markers of accumbens dopamine transmission were examined. Bupropion elevated extracellular dopamine levels in accumbens core as measured by microdialysis and increased phosphorylated dopamine and cyclic-AMP related phosphoprotein 32 kDaltons (pDARPP-32) immunoreactivity in a manner consistent with D1 and D2 receptor stimulation. The ability of bupropion to increase exertion of effort in instrumental behavior may have implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of effort-related motivational symptoms in humans. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.