Failure to deactivate in autism: the co-constitution of self and other
ABSTRACT A new brain imaging study demonstrates that patients with autism have a strikingly different pattern of brain activity compared with control subjects. During cognitive tasks, cortical areas known as the "default state" network--areas that have been implicated in both self-referential processing and processing of socially relevant information--typically reduce their brain activity. In patients with autism, such a reduction was not observed. This new finding indicates that a core deficit in autism might be related to the construal of a sense of self in its relationship with others and will certainly generate exciting new research on the neurobiology of autism.
- SourceAvailable from: Lucina Q Uddin
- "e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / n e u b i o r e v conceptualizations of the brain basis of ASD have taken a systemslevel approach, and proposed that ASD may be explained by abnormalities in the mirror neuron system (Oberman and Ramachandran, 2007; Williams et al., 2001), the default-mode network (Kennedy and Courchesne, 2008; Kennedy et al., 2006), or both (Iacoboni, 2006). These conceptualizations, however, have primarily focused on specific brain systems and have largely ignored the critical interactions between multiple distinct brain systems, which may be important for understanding the neurobiology of a complex neurodevelopmental disorder such as ASD. "
Dataset: Uddin2009(ASD Insula)
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- "Functional MRI has shown that witnessing the emotions of others triggers neural activations in brain regions (insula and cingulate cortex) normally associated with feeling similar emotions oneself (Bastiaansen et al., 2009; Lamm et al., 2011), and witnessing what others do and sense recruits one's own motor and somatosensory cortices (Pineda, 2008; Keysers and Gazzola, 2009; Caspers et al., 2010; Keysers et al., 2010). The strength of these so called vicarious neural activations is predicted by interindividual differences in trait-empathy (Singer et al., 2004; Gazzola et al., 2006; Jabbi et al., 2007) and they are therefore thought to represent a neural marker for empathy (Singer et al., 2004; Iacoboni, 2006; Pineda, 2008; Bastiaansen et al., 2009; Keysers and Gazzola, 2009). These neural markers for empathy have been investigated in several psychiatric disorders, autism in particular (Dapretto et al., 2006; Decety and Moriguchi, 2007; Dinstein et al., 2008; Minio- Paluello et al., 2009), but surprisingly, not directly in psychopathy. "
ABSTRACT: Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with a profound lack of empathy. Neuroscientists have associated empathy and its interindividual variation with how strongly participants activate brain regions involved in their own actions, emotions and sensations while viewing those of others. Here we compared brain activity of 18 psychopathic offenders with 26 control subjects while viewing video clips of emotional hand interactions and while experiencing similar interactions. Brain regions involved in experiencing these interactions were not spontaneously activated as strongly in the patient group while viewing the video clips. However, this group difference was markedly reduced when we specifically instructed participants to feel with the actors in the videos. Our results suggest that psychopathy is not a simple incapacity for vicarious activations but rather reduced spontaneous vicarious activations co-existing with relatively normal deliberate counterparts.Brain 08/2013; 136(Pt 8):2550-62. DOI:10.1093/brain/awt190 · 10.23 Impact Factor
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- "A wide variety of tasks of social cognition cause activity here to increase above the resting baseline (Schreiber, 2011). Dysfunction in the area is implicated in autism, which is typically characterized by difficulty with reading the intentional states of others (Iacoboni, 2006; Minshew & Keller, 2010). While activations here are often found in competitive or cooperative contexts when we engage with other humans, the region does not activate in parallel contexts when the other player is a computer (McCabe, Houser, Ryan, Smith, & Trouard, 2001). "
ABSTRACT: While a substantial body of work has been devoted to understanding the role of negative stereotypes in racial attitudes, far less is known about how we deal with contradictions of those stereotypes. This article uses functional brain imaging with contextually rich visual stimuli to explore the neural mechanisms that are involved in cognition about social norms and race. We present evidence that racial stereotypes are more about the stereotypes than about race per se. Amygdala activity (correlated with negative racial attitudes in other studies) appeared driven by norm violation, rather than race. Similarly, a pattern of deactivation in the medial prefrontal cortex (previously associated with the dehumanizing of social outcasts) was connected to norm violation, not race.Political Psychology 06/2012; 33(3):313-330. DOI:10.2307/23260393 · 1.71 Impact Factor