Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: a noninvasive regeneration therapy for treating atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease.

Department of Cardiology, Regeneration Medicine and Bioethics, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.
Circulation Journal (Impact Factor: 3.69). 10/2006; 70(9):1093-8.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine whether treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which mobilizes endothelial progenitor cells from bone marrow, can safely improve the clinical outcomes of patients with atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease (PAD).
Thirty-nine patients with intractable PAD were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a negative control group (n=12) treated with conventional drug therapy; a positive control group (n=13) treated with conventional drug therapy plus bone marrow transplantation (BMT); and a G-CSF group (n=14) treated with conventional therapy plus subcutaneous injection of 2-5 microg/kg of recombinant human G-CSF once daily for 10 days. One month after treatment, subjective symptoms improved significantly in the G-CSF and BMT groups. Ankle-brachial pressure index and transcutaneous oxygen pressure increased significantly in the BMT and G-CSF groups, but no such improvements were seen in the group receiving conventional therapy alone.
G-CSF improves the clinical signs and symptoms of patients with intractable PAD to the same degree as BMT does. This noninvasive treatment may thus represent a useful new approach to managing the disease.

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    • "Thus, interventions that increase circulating progenitor cells may promote angiogenesis and improve walking performance in people with PAD [16]. However, results of studies conducted to date have been mixed [11] [19] [20]. Therefore, it is currently unclear whether interventions that increase progenitor cell levels improve walking performance in patients with PAD. "
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    ABSTRACT: Functional impairment, functional decline, and mobility loss are major public health problems in people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Few medical therapies significantly improve walking performance in PAD. We describe methods for the PROgenitor cell release Plus Exercise to improve functionaL performance in PAD (PROPEL) Study, a randomized controlled clinical trial designed to determine whether granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) combined with supervised treadmill walking exercise improves six-minute walk distance more than GM-CSF alone, more than supervised treadmill exercise alone, and more than placebo plus attention control in participants with PAD, respectively. PROPEL Study participants are randomized to one of four arms in a 2 by 2 factorial design. The four study arms are GM-CSF plus supervised treadmill exercise, GM-CSF plus attention control, placebo plus supervised exercise therapy, or placebo plus attention control. The primary outcome is change in six-minute walk distance at 12-week follow-up. Secondary outcomes include change in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), change in maximal treadmill walking time, and change in circulating CD34+ cells at 12-week follow-up. Outcomes are also measured at six-week and six-month follow-up. Results of the PROPEL Study will have important implications for understanding mechanisms of improving walking performance and preventing mobility loss in the large and growing number of men and women with PAD.
    Contemporary clinical trials 09/2013; 36(2). DOI:10.1016/j.cct.2013.09.011 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    • "Growth factors that can naturally mobilize bone marrow progenitor cells to peripheral blood have been tested for their ability to treat various atherosclerotic diseases. While favourable results have been reported in peripheral arterial disease, such as improvement in limb perfusion [96], limited benefits were shown in patients with myocardial infarction [97] [98], although men seemed more susceptible to favourable effects [99]. Moreover, doubts remain regarding the functional integrity of EPCs mobilized by those pharmacological agents [87]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral vascular diseases such as peripheral artery disease (PAD) and critical limb ischemia (CLI) are growing at an ever-increasing rate in the Western world due to an aging population and the incidence of type II diabetes. A growing economic burden continues because these diseases are common indicators of future heart attack or stroke. Common therapies are generally limited to pharmacologic agents or endovascular therapies which have had mixed results still ending in necrosis or limb loss. Therapeutic angiogenic strategies have become welcome options for patients suffering from PAD due to the restoration of blood flow in the extremities. Capillary sprouting and a return to normoxic tissue states are also demonstrated by the use of angiogenic cytokines in conjunction with bone marrow cell populations. To this point, it has been determined that spatial and temporal controlled release of growth factors from vehicles provides a greater therapeutic and angiogenic effect than growth factors delivered intramuscularly, intravenously, or intraarterialy due to rapid metabolization of the cytokine, and non-targeted release. Furthermore, bone marrow cells have been implicated to enhance angiogenesis in numerous ischemic diseases due to their ability to secrete angiogenic cytokines and their numerous cell fractions present which are implicated to promote mature vessel formation. Use of angiogenic peptides, in conjunction with bone marrow cells, has been hypothesized in EPC mobilization from the periphery and marrow tissues to facilitate neovessel formation. For this purpose, controlled release of angiogenic peptides basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) was performed using tunable ionic gelatin hydrogels or fibrin scaffolds with ionic albumin microspheres. The proliferation of endothelial cell culture was determined to have an enhanced effect based on altering concentrations of growth factors and method of release: co-delivery versus sequential. Scaffolds with these angiogenic peptides were implanted in young balb/c mice that underwent unilateral hindlimb ischemia by ligation and excision of the femoral artery. Endpoints for hindlimb reperfusion and angiogenesis were determined by Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging and immunohistochemical staining for capillaries (CD-31) and smooth muscle cells (alpha-SMA). In addition to controlled release of angiogenic peptides, further studies combined the use of a fibrin co-delivery scaffold with FGF-2 and G-CSF with bone marrow stem cell transplantation to enhance vessel formation following CLI. Endpoints also included lipophilic vascular painting to evaluate the extent of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in an ischemic hindlimb. Tissue engineering strategies utilizing bone marrow cells and angiogenic peptides demonstrate improved hindlimb blood flow compared to BM cells or cytokines alone, as well as enhanced angiogenesis based on immunohistochemical staining and vessel densities.
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