Treating postprandial hyperglycemia does not appear to delay progression of early type 2 diabetes: the Early Diabetes Intervention Program.
ABSTRACT Postprandial hyperglycemia characterizes early type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether ameliorating postprandial hyperglycemia with acarbose would prevent or delay progression of diabetes, defined as progression to frank fasting hyperglycemia, in subjects with early diabetes (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] <140 mg/dl and 2-h plasma glucose > or =200 mg/dl).
Two hundred nineteen subjects with early diabetes were randomly assigned to 100 mg acarbose t.i.d. or identical placebo and followed for 5 years or until they reached the primary outcome (two consecutive quarterly FPG measurements of > or =140 mg/dl). Secondary outcomes included measures of glycemia (meal tolerance tests, HbA(1c), annual oral glucose tolerance tests [OGTTs]), measures of insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA] of insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity index from hyperglycemic clamps), and secondary measures of beta-cell function (HOMA-beta, early- and late-phase insulin secretion, and proinsulin-to-insulin ratio).
Acarbose significantly reduced postprandial hyperglycemia. However, there was no difference in the cumulative rate of frank fasting hyperglycemia (29% with acarbose and 34% with placebo; P = 0.65 for survival analysis). There were no significant differences between groups in OGTT values, measures of insulin resistance, or secondary measures of beta-cell function. In a post hoc analysis of subjects with initial FPG <126 mg/dl, acarbose reduced the rate of development of FPG > or =126 mg/dl (27 vs. 50%; P = 0.04).
Ameliorating postprandial hyperglycemia did not appear to delay progression of early type 2 diabetes. Factors other than postprandial hyperglycemia may be greater determinants of progression of diabetes. Alternatively, once FPG exceeds 126 mg/dl, beta-cell failure may no longer be remediable.
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ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy of glycemic control and insulin secretion of alpha glucosidase inhibitors (AGI) on type 2 diabetes patients between Asian and Caucasian. The MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, CENTRAL were searched and qualified studies in Asian and Caucasian population comparing AGI treatment with placebo or other oral anti-diabetic drugs in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Totally 58 qualified studies were included. When AGI treatment was compared with placebo, a significant difference in HbA1c decline from baseline favoring AGI treatment was found in Asian (weighted mean difference (WMD), -0.50%; 95% CI, -0.66% to -0.34%) and in Caucasian a significant difference in HbA1c decline favoring AGI treatment was also found (WMD, -0.68%; 95% CI, -0.76% to -0.60%). In Asian, fasting plasma glucose was reduced with AGI treatment compared with placebo (WMD, -0.53 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.91 to -0.14 mmol/L) and in Caucasian there was also a significant difference in FPG changes favoring AGI therapy (WMD, -0.88 mmol/L; 95% CI, -1.00 to -0.77 mmol/L). Studies in Asian showed a significant difference in fasting insulin changes favoring AGI treatment (WMD, -0.78 uU/ml; 95% CI, -0.96 to -0.59 uU/ml). While in Caucasian fasting insulin was decreased without significance with AGI treatment (WMD-1.24 uU/ml; 95% CI, -2.51 to 0.04 uU/ml). Body weight was decreased with AGI treatment in Asian (WMD, -1.00 kg; 95% CI, -1.69 to -0.31 kg) and was also decreased with AGI treatment in Caucasian (WMD, -0.73 kg; 95% CI, -1.13 to -0.33 kg). According to results from this meta-analysis, the efficacy in glucose lowering, body weight reduction and insulin secretion decreasing of AGI treatment in Asian were comparable with those in Caucasian.PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e79421. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prediabetes, a high-risk state for future development of diabetes, is prevalent globally. Abnormalities in the incretin axis are important in the progression of B-cell failure in type 2 diabetes. Incretin based therapy was found to improve B cell mass and glycaemic control in addition to having multiple beneficial effects on the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, weight loss in addition to their other beneficial effects on the liver and cardiovascular system. In prediabetes, several well-designed preventive trials have shown that lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions such as metformin, thiazolidinediones (TZD), acarbose and, nateglinide and orlistat, are effective in reducing diabetes development. In recent small studies, incretin based therapy (DPP IV inhibitors and GLP-1 agonists) have also been extended to patients with prediabetes since it was shown to better preserve B-cell function and mass in animal studies and in clinical trials and it was also shown to help maintain good long term metabolic control. Because of the limited studies and clinical experience, their side effects and costs currently guidelines do not recommend incretin-based therapies as an option for treatment in patients with prediabetes. With future clinical trials and studies they may be recommended for patients with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance.Primary Care Diabetes. 12/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Effects of aqueous mulberry leaf extract (Morus alba L.) on glucose and lipid metabolisms in highfat and high-sucrose diet-induced overweight animal models were examined. Supplementation of mulberry leaf extract (MLE) resulted in body weight changes in both high-fat- and high-sucroseinduced overweight rats. Plasma insulin and Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance also significantly decreased by MLE treatment (p<0.05). In addition, plasma free fatty acid level was also decreased by MLE supplementation in high-fat diet-induced overweight rat (p<0.05). MLE supplementation significantly (p<0.05) increased the expression of insulin receptor genes at the transcriptional level. MLE supplementation decreased plasma insulin concentrations increased by high-fat or high-sucrose diets and improved insulin sensitivity by increasing the expression level of insulin receptor in muscle and adipose tissue.Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 54(4). · 0.54 Impact Factor