c-Type cytochromes in Pelobacter carbinolicus.

Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.95). 12/2006; 72(11):6980-5. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01128-06
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous studies failed to detect c-type cytochromes in Pelobacter species despite the fact that other close relatives in the Geobacteraceae, such as Geobacter and Desulfuromonas species, have abundant c-type cytochromes. Analysis of the recently completed genome sequence of Pelobacter carbinolicus revealed 14 open reading frames that could encode c-type cytochromes. Transcripts for all but one of these open reading frames were detected in acetoin-fermenting and/or Fe(III)-reducing cells. Three putative c-type cytochrome genes were expressed specifically during Fe(III) reduction, suggesting that the encoded proteins may participate in electron transfer to Fe(III). One of these proteins was a periplasmic triheme cytochrome with a high level of similarity to PpcA, which has a role in Fe(III) reduction in Geobacter sulfurreducens. Genes for heme biosynthesis and system II cytochrome c biogenesis were identified in the genome and shown to be expressed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels of protein extracted from acetoin-fermenting P. carbinolicus cells contained three heme-staining bands which were confirmed by mass spectrometry to be among the 14 predicted c-type cytochromes. The number of cytochrome genes, the predicted amount of heme c per protein, and the ratio of heme-stained protein to total protein were much smaller in P. carbinolicus than in G. sulfurreducens. Furthermore, many of the c-type cytochromes that genetic studies have indicated are required for optimal Fe(III) reduction in G. sulfurreducens were not present in the P. carbinolicus genome. These results suggest that further evaluation of the functions of c-type cytochromes in the Geobacteraceae is warranted.

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    ABSTRACT: The microbial reduction of Fe(III) plays an important role in the geochemistry of hydrothermal systems yet it is poorly understood at the mechanistic level. Here we show that the obligate Fe(III)-reducing archaeon Geoglobus ahangari uses a direct contact mechanism for the reduction of Fe(III) oxides to magnetite at 85°C. Alleviating the need to directly contact the mineral with the addition of a chelator or the electron shuttle anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) stimulated Fe(III) reduction. By contrast, entrapment of the oxides within alginate beads to prevent cell contact with the electron acceptor prevented Fe(III) reduction and cell growth unless AQDS was provided. Furthermore, filtered culture supernatant fluids had no effect on Fe(III) reduction, ruling out the secretion of an endogenous mediator too large to permeate through the alginate beads. Consistent with a direct contact mechanism, electron micrographs revealed cells in intimate association with the Fe(III) mineral particles, which once dissolved revealed abundant curled appendages. The cells also produced several heme-containing proteins. Some of them were detected among proteins sheared from the cell's outer surface and were required for the reduction of insoluble Fe(III) oxides but not for the reduction of the soluble electron acceptor Fe(III) citrate. The results thus support a mechanism in which the cells directly attach and transfer electrons to the Fe(III) oxides using redox-active proteins exposed on the cell surface. This strategy confers on G. ahangari a competitive advantage for accessing and reducing Fe(III) oxides under the extreme physical and chemical conditions of hot ecosystems.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 05/2013; DOI:10.1128/AEM.01566-13 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pelobacter carbinolicus and P. acetylenicus oxidize ethanol in syntrophic cooperation with methanogens. Cocultures with Methanospirillum hungatei served as model systems for the elucidation of syntrophic ethanol oxidation previously done with the lost "Methanobacillus omelianskii" coculture. During growth on ethanol, both Pelobacter species exhibited NAD+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Two different acetaldehyde-oxidizing activities were found: a benzyl viologen-reducing enzyme forming acetate, and a NAD+-reducing enzyme forming acetyl-CoA. Both species synthesized ATP from acetyl-CoA via acetyl phosphate. Comparative 2D-PAGE of ethanol-grown P. carbinolicus revealed enhanced expression of tungsten-dependent acetaldehyde: ferredoxin oxidoreductases and formate dehydrogenase. Tungsten limitation resulted in slower growth and the expression of a molybdenum-dependent isoenzyme. Putative comproportionating hydrogenases and formate dehydrogenase were expressed constitutively and are probably involved in interspecies electron transfer. In ethanol-grown cocultures, the maximum hydrogen partial pressure was about 1,000 Pa (1 mM) while 2 mM formate was produced. The redox potentials of hydrogen and formate released during ethanol oxidation were calculated to be EH2 = -358±12 mV and EHCOOH = -366±19 mV, respectively. Hydrogen and formate formation and degradation further proved that both carriers contributed to interspecies electron transfer. The maximum Gibbs free energy that the Pelobacter species could exploit during growth on ethanol was -35 to -28 kJ per mol ethanol. Both species could be cultivated axenically on acetaldehyde, yielding energy from its disproportionation to ethanol and acetate. Syntrophic cocultures grown on acetoin revealed a two-phase degradation: first acetoin degradation to acetate and ethanol without involvement of the methanogenic partner, and subsequent syntrophic ethanol oxidation. Protein expression and activity patterns of both Pelobacter spp. grown with the named substrates were highly similar suggesting that both share the same steps in ethanol and acetalydehyde metabolism. The early assumption that acetaldehyde is a central intermediate in Pelobacter metabolism was now proven biochemically.
    PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e115902. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115902 · 3.53 Impact Factor


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