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Pharmaceutical chemicals and endocrine disrupters in municipal wastewater in Tokyo and their removal during activated sludge treatment.

Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry (LOG), Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan.
Water Research (Impact Factor: 5.32). 11/2006; 40(17):3297-303. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2006.06.039
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We measured six acidic analgesics or anti-inflammatories (aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, mefenamic acid), two phenolic antiseptics (thymol, triclosan), four amide pharmaceuticals (propyphenazone, crotamiton, carbamazepine, diethyltoluamide), three phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (nonylphenol, octylphenol, bisphenol A), and three natural estrogens (17beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol) in 24-h composite samples of influents and secondary effluents collected seasonally from five municipal sewage treatment plants in Tokyo. Aspirin was most abundant in the influent, with an average concentration of 7300 ng/L (n = 16), followed by crotamiton (921 ng/L), ibuprofen (669 ng/L), triclosan (511 ng/L), and diethyltoluamide (503 ng/L). These concentrations were 1 order of magnitude lower than those reported in the USA and Europe. This can be ascribed to lower consumption of the pharmaceuticals in Japan. Aspirin, ibuprofen, and thymol were removed efficiently during primary + secondary treatment (> 90% efficiency). On the other hand, amide-type pharmaceuticals, ketoprofen, and naproxen showed poor removal (< 50% efficiency), which is probably due to their lower hydrophobicity (logKow < 3). Because of the persistence of crotamiton during secondary treatment, crotamiton was most abundant among the target pharmaceuticals in the effluent. This is the first paper to report ubiquitous occurrence of crotamiton, a scabicide, in sewage. Because crotamiton is used worldwide and it is persistent during secondary treatment, it is a promising molecular marker of sewage and secondary effluent.

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    ABSTRACT: The occurrence and the removal efficiency of natural estrogens, estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3), as well as a synthetic estrogen, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), were investigated in two sewage treatment plants (STPs) employing different activated sludge processes in Tunisia, by monitoring their concentrations in the dissolved phase. The analytes were extracted by solid-phase extraction and then analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations of natural and synthetic estrogens (except E1) detected in the effluents of alternating activated sludge process were generally lower than the limit of detection. On the other hand, no estrogen was totally removed through the simple activated sludge process, as a result, all target compounds were detected in effluent samples. E3 showed the highest concentration in the influent samples at 98 ng/L in the alternating anoxic/aerobic activated sludge process, and at 102 ng/L in the simple activated sludge. Removal efficiency varied between the two plants; high removal of estrogens (84-97%) with the exception of E1 (80%) were generally achieved in alternating anoxic/aerobic activated sludge process with a high hydraulic retention time (40 h) and treatment stages for removal of nitrogen. E1 showed the lowest removal of all estrogens in the two STPs. This could be caused by conversion of E2 to E1 in the treatment process, or by cleavage of estrogen conjugates. On the other hand, E3 showed the highest removal of all estrogens both in alternating anoxic/aerobic and simple activated sludge processes at 97.5% and 85.5%, respectively). EE2, which is particularly sensitive to human consumption as the oral contraceptive, were removed by approximately 77.5% in the simple activated sludge process.
    Tunisian Japanese Symposium On Science, Society and Technology, Hammamet-Tunisia; 10/2011
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The occurrence and the removal efficiency of natural estrogens, estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3), as well as a synthetic estrogen, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), were investigated in two sewage treatment plants (STPs) employing different activated sludge processes in Tunisia, by monitoring their concentrations in the dissolved phase. The analytes were extracted by solid-phase extraction and then analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations of natural and synthetic estrogens (except E1) detected in the effluents of alternating activated sludge process were generally lower than the limit of detection. On the other hand, no estrogen was totally removed through the simple activated sludge process, as a result, all target compounds were detected in effluent samples. E3 showed the highest concentration in the influent samples at 98 ng/L in the alternating anoxic/aerobic activated sludge process, and at 102 ng/L in the simple activated sludge. Removal efficiency varied between the two plants; high removal of estrogens (84-97%) with the exception of E1 (80%) were generally achieved in alternating anoxic/aerobic activated sludge process with a high hydraulic retention time (40 h) and treatment stages for removal of nitrogen. E1 showed the lowest removal of all estrogens in the two STPs. This could be caused by conversion of E2 to E1 in the treatment process, or by cleavage of estrogen conjugates. On the other hand, E3 showed the highest removal of all estrogens both in alternating anoxic/aerobic and simple activated sludge processes at 97.5% and 85.5%, respectively). EE2, which is particularly sensitive to human consumption as the oral contraceptive, were removed by approximately 77.5% in the simple activated sludge process.
    Tunisian Japanese Symposium On Science, Society and Technology, Hammamet; 11/2011
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