Article

Pharmaceutical chemicals and endocrine disrupters in municipal wastewater in Tokyo and their removal during activated sludge treatment.

Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry (LOG), Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan.
Water Research (Impact Factor: 5.32). 11/2006; 40(17):3297-303. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2006.06.039
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We measured six acidic analgesics or anti-inflammatories (aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, mefenamic acid), two phenolic antiseptics (thymol, triclosan), four amide pharmaceuticals (propyphenazone, crotamiton, carbamazepine, diethyltoluamide), three phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (nonylphenol, octylphenol, bisphenol A), and three natural estrogens (17beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol) in 24-h composite samples of influents and secondary effluents collected seasonally from five municipal sewage treatment plants in Tokyo. Aspirin was most abundant in the influent, with an average concentration of 7300 ng/L (n = 16), followed by crotamiton (921 ng/L), ibuprofen (669 ng/L), triclosan (511 ng/L), and diethyltoluamide (503 ng/L). These concentrations were 1 order of magnitude lower than those reported in the USA and Europe. This can be ascribed to lower consumption of the pharmaceuticals in Japan. Aspirin, ibuprofen, and thymol were removed efficiently during primary + secondary treatment (> 90% efficiency). On the other hand, amide-type pharmaceuticals, ketoprofen, and naproxen showed poor removal (< 50% efficiency), which is probably due to their lower hydrophobicity (logKow < 3). Because of the persistence of crotamiton during secondary treatment, crotamiton was most abundant among the target pharmaceuticals in the effluent. This is the first paper to report ubiquitous occurrence of crotamiton, a scabicide, in sewage. Because crotamiton is used worldwide and it is persistent during secondary treatment, it is a promising molecular marker of sewage and secondary effluent.

0 Followers
 · 
152 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The occurrence of five endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), namely 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO), triclosan (TCS) and bisphenol A (BPA), was assessed in the raw, treated wastewater and sewage sludge of eight sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Greece. The analytes were extracted by solid-phase extraction (dissolved phase) or sonication (solid phase). Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The average concentrations in the raw and treated wastewater ranged from 0.23 (4-n-NP) to 5.76microgL(-1) (NP1EO) and from 0.15 (BPA) to 1.84microgL(-1) (NP2EO), respectively. A great part of the detected EDCs was sorbed on suspended solids. In sewage sludge, the average concentrations ranged between 0.17 (4-n-NP) and 12.3microgg(-1)dw (NP1EO). Analysis of daily mass flows in STP of Athens showed that, with the exception of 4-n-NP, all other EDCs were significantly removed (>85%) during wastewater treatment. Regarding the fate of these compounds, a significant part ranging from 45% (for TCS) to more than 70% (for NP1EO, NP2EO and BPA) was transformed by abiotic or biotic mechanisms, while the rest was accumulated in sewage sludge or disposed to the environment via the effluents. Calculation of risk quotients showed the existence of possible threat due to the presence of certain EDCs in treated wastewater and sludge.
    Water Research 03/2008; 42(6-7):1796-804. DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2007.11.003 · 5.32 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reclaimed water is an important source of irrigation and is widely used on agricultural soils throughout the world, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. However, concerns about the potential risks of this practice are rapidly increasing because reclaimed water may contain various organic pollutants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Trace levels of PPCPs have been found in fields irrigated with reclaimed water, and continual infusion, along with bioaccumulation properties, may result in significant bio-uptake and PPCP contamination in agricultural soils. This review attempts to summarize the literature concerning the fate and behavior of PPCPs in agricultural soils, as well as their adverse effects on soil organisms (including microorganisms and fauna), crops, and even humans via dietary consumption. Strategies and potential technologies for degrading or removing PPCPs from soils are addressed, along with the irrigation strategies and agricultural practices for minimizing PPCP transfer to crops and groundwater. Based on this review, we conclude that the agricultural risks of PPCPs associated with reclaimed water irrigation could be controlled under certain agro-ecological conditions. We suggest developing agro-ecosystem-specific practices and regulations for reclaimed water irrigation on the basis of a systematic assessment and modeling analysis of the fate, transport, accumulation, and transformation of PPCPs in soil–crop systems.
    Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 07/2015; 45(13). DOI:10.1080/10643389.2014.955628 · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Algal samples were fractionated into lipid (LP), lipid free (LF), alkaline nonhydrolyzable carbon (ANHC), and acid nonhydrolyzable carbon (NHC) fractions, and were characterized by the quantitative (13)C multiCP NMR technique. The biosorption isotherms for nonylphenol (NP) were established and compared with previously published data for phenanthrene (Phen). The log KOC values are significantly higher for the field-collected plankton samples than for the commercial algae and cultured algae samples, correlating with their lipid contents and aliphatic carbon structure. As the NHC fraction contains more poly(methylene) carbon, it exhibits a higher biosorption capacity. The sorption capacities are negatively related to the polarity index, COO/N-C=O, polar C and O-alkyl C concentrations, but are positively related to the H/O atomic ratios and poly(methylene) carbon. The higher sorption capacities observed for NP than for Phen on the investigated samples are explained by specific interactions such as hydrogen bonding and π-π interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Environmental Pollution 12/2014; 198C:61-69. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2014.12.020 · 3.90 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
4 Downloads