Indications for tracheostomy in children.

Division of Paediatric Intensive Care and Pulmonology, University Children's Hospital Basel, Römergasse 8, CH-4059 Basel, Switzerland.
Paediatric respiratory reviews (Impact Factor: 2.79). 10/2006; 7(3):162-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.prrv.2006.06.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vaccination programs, improvements in material engineering and anaesthetic skills have dramatically reduced the number of emergency tracheostomies performed for acute upper airway obstruction. Today, the indication to tracheotomise a child is generally ruled by the anticipation of long-term (cardio)respiratory compromise due to chronic ventilatory or, more rarely, cardiac insufficiency, or by the presence of a fixed upper airway obstruction that is unlikely to resolve for a significant period of time. As many of the younger candidates for tracheostomy have complex medical conditions, the indication for this intervention is often complicated by ethical, funding and socio-economic concerns that necessitate a multidisciplinary approach. Unfortunately, these considerations are frequently not made until the first catastrophe has occurred, even in those patients in whom imminent cardiorespiratory failure has been foreseeable. Non-invasive ventilation via a face mask and newer developments such as the in-exsufflator device have gained importance as an alternative to tracheostomy in selected patients.

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    ABSTRACT: RATIONALE: Little data are available regarding efficiency of drug delivery devices and techniques despite their widespread use in spontaneously breathing tracheostomized patients. We compared patient dose achieved with different devices, inhalation techniques, tracheostomy tube sizes and breathing patterns using a spontaneously breathing tracheostomized pediatric model. METHODS: A tracheostomy model was connected in series to a breathing simulator with a filter interposed (patient dose). Breathing patterns of a 16-month-old and a 6- and 12-year-old child with tracheostomy with internal diameters (mm) of 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 were used. Albuterol HFAp MDI was used. Aerotrach Plus, MediBag, Aerochamber MV, Aerochamber Mini, and inline adapter with 6-inch tubing were tested. The latter 3 devices were also tested with assisted technique. Albuterol was analyzed via spectrophotometry. RESULTS: Aerotrach Plus outperformed almost all devices tested. Aerochamber MV with unassisted technique was the second best and the adapter was the worst. Comparison of efficiency between best and worst performer ranged from 3- to 17.2-fold. The 16-month-old breathing pattern and the 3.5 mm tracheostomy tube had the lowest patient dose. The use of assisted technique decreased patient dose by 18-67% for the 4.5 and 5.5 mm but not for 3.5 mm tracheostomy tubes. A median of 7.4% of the nominal dose was deposited in the tracheostomy tubes. CONCLUSIONS: Aerotrach Plus and the adapter were the most and least efficient devices respectively. Tracheostomy size and breathing pattern affected drug delivery. The use of assisted technique reduced aerosol delivery. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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    ABSTRACT: There are many causes of acute severe upper airway obstruction (UAO) in children. The timing of symptom onset and the presence of fever will help to distinguish infectious from non-infectious conditions. Signs and symptoms from congenital malformations often present at birth but may also develop over time. The most common cause of UAO in children is croup. Choking on a foreign body also occurs relatively frequently. Evaluation of the child with UAO starts with a detailed history followed by a thorough physical examination, including an assessment of severity. Severe airway obstruction will result in respiratory failure. This situation requires an immediate response. A child with partial airway obstruction may initially have an adequate airway. However, this situation can deteriorate rapidly. Therefore, providing supportive care and mobilizing resources for definitive airway management may be the most appropriate interventions.
    Paediatric Respiratory Reviews 04/2013; · 2.77 Impact Factor
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