Mood disorders and Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: An update on prevalence, etiology, comorbidity, clinical associations, and implications.
ABSTRACT Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) consists of multiple motor tics and one or more phonic tics. Psychopathology occurs in approximately 90% of GTS patients, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) being common. Depression is common, with a lifetime risk of 10% and a prevalence of between 1.8% and 8.9%. Depression and depressive symptoms are found to occur in 13% and 76% of GTS patients attending specialist clinics, respectively. In controlled studies embracing over 700 GTS patients, the patients were significantly more depressed than controls in all but one instance. In community and epidemiological studies, depression in GTS individuals was evident in two of five investigations. Clinical correlates of depression in people with GTS appear to be: tic severity and duration, the presence of echophenomena and coprophenomena, premonitory sensations, sleep disturbances, obsessive-compulsive behaviors/OCD, self-injurious behaviors, aggression, conduct disorder (CD) in childhood, and, possibly, ADHD. Depression in people with GTS has been shown to result in a lower quality of life, potentially leading to hospitalization and suicide. The etiology of depression appears to be multifactorial. Bipolar affective disorder (BAD) and GTS may be related in some individuals. However, it is noted that sample sizes in most of these studies were small, and it is unclear at the present time as to why BAD may be overrepresented among GTS patients.
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ABSTRACT: There is compelling evidence for an association between structural brain deformities and psychiatric disorders. We report the case of an adolescent boy who was diagnosed with both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Tourette's syndrome. A full-blown manic episode occurred when he was 13 years old. During his admission to a psychiatric ward, closed-lip schizencephaly in the left frontal lobe and the right parietal lobe was identified through brain imaging. Effective control of his manic symptoms was achieved with quetiapine monotherapy within 3 weeks. This case report implies that the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, especially in young patients with multiple comorbid conditions, may be associated with abnormalities in the anatomical and functional development of the brain.General hospital psychiatry 01/2012; 34(6):702.e1-3. DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2011.12.004 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There are little data concerning clinical characteristics of women with Tourette disorder and chronic tic disorders in the extant literature and what is available mostly focuses on treatment-seeking individuals. The present research was conducted to provide a phenomenological characterization of tic disorders among 185 adult women with tic disorders. In addition to providing a descriptive overview of specific tic symptoms, tic severity, self-reported history of other psychiatric conditions, and impairment/lifestyle impact due to tics, this study compares 185 women and 275 men between 18 and 79 years old with tic disorders (who completed an identical battery of measures) based on demographic, social/economic status indicators, psychiatric variables (comorbidity, family psychiatric history, symptom presentation), adaptive functioning/quality of life, and impairment variables among a nonclinical adult sample. Finally, this research examines the relationship between tic severity and impairment indicators among women with tics. Sixty-eight percent of women in our sample reported severe motor tics and 40% reported severe phonic tics. Our exploratory data suggest that a sizeable number of adult women with persistent tics are suffering from psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial consequences such as underachievement and social distress. Tic severity in women may be associated with lifestyle interference as well as with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and such symptoms may be more common among women with tics than in men with tics.Comprehensive psychiatry 08/2011; 53(5):525-34. DOI:10.1016/j.comppsych.2011.07.004 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The current study examined relationships between tic severity and both functional impairment and perceived quality of life (QOL) in adults with a chronic tic disorder. The authors explored whether these relationships were moderated by anxiety and depressive symptoms. Five-hundred adults with Tourette's Disorder, Chronic Motor Tic Disorder, or Chronic Vocal Tic Disorder participated in a comprehensive self-report internet-based survey. Anxiety and depressive symptoms moderated the relationship between tic severity and functional impairment such that stronger relationships were documented in participants with elevated depressive or anxious symptoms. Limitations and implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.Journal of anxiety disorders 10/2010; 25(2):164-8. DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.08.016 · 2.68 Impact Factor