A randomized trial of deep-brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT Neurostimulation of the subthalamic nucleus reduces levodopa-related motor complications in advanced Parkinson's disease. We compared this treatment plus medication with medical management.
In this randomized-pairs trial, we enrolled 156 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and severe motor symptoms. The primary end points were the changes from baseline to six months in the quality of life, as assessed by the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39), and the severity of symptoms without medication, according to the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, part III (UPDRS-III).
Pairwise comparisons showed that neurostimulation, as compared with medication alone, caused greater improvements from baseline to six months in the PDQ-39 (50 of 78 pairs, P=0.02) and the UPDRS-III (55 of 78, P<0.001), with mean improvements of 9.5 and 19.6 points, respectively. Neurostimulation resulted in improvements of 24 to 38 percent in the PDQ-39 subscales for mobility, activities of daily living, emotional well-being, stigma, and bodily discomfort. Serious adverse events were more common with neurostimulation than with medication alone (13 percent vs. 4 percent, P<0.04) and included a fatal intracerebral hemorrhage. The overall frequency of adverse events was higher in the medication group (64 percent vs. 50 percent, P=0.08).
In this six-month study of patients under 75 years of age with severe motor complications of Parkinson's disease, neurostimulation of the subthalamic nucleus was more effective than medical management alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00196911 [ClinicalTrials.gov].).
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ABSTRACT: Synchronization of populations of neurons is a hallmark of several brain diseases. Coordinated reset (CR) stimulation is a model-based stimulation technique which specifically counteracts abnormal synchrony by desynchronization. Electrical CR stimulation, e.g., for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), is administered via depth electrodes. In order to get a deeper understanding of this technique, we extended the top-down approach of previous studies and constructed a large-scale computational model of the respective brain areas. Furthermore, we took into account the spatial anatomical properties of the simulated brain structures and incorporated a detailed numerical representation of 2 · 10(4) simulated neurons. We simulated the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus externus (GPe). Connections within the STN were governed by spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP). In this way, we modeled the physiological and pathological activity of the considered brain structures. In particular, we investigated how plasticity could be exploited and how the model could be shifted from strongly synchronized (pathological) activity to strongly desynchronized (healthy) activity of the neuronal populations via CR stimulation of the STN neurons. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of specific stimulation parameters especially the electrode position on the stimulation outcome. Our model provides a step forward toward a biophysically realistic model of the brain areas relevant to the emergence of pathological neuronal activity in PD. Furthermore, our model constitutes a test bench for the optimization of both stimulation parameters and novel electrode geometries for efficient CR stimulation.Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience 11/2014; 8:154. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Radiofrequency (RF) subthalamotomies have been proposed since the 1960s to treat patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, the magnetic resonance (MR)-guided focused ultrasound technology (MRgFUS) offers the possibility to perform subthalamic thermocoagulations with reduced risks and optimized accuracy. We describe here the initial results of the MRgFUS pallidothalamic tractotomy (PTT), an anatomical and physiological update of the earlier subthalamotomies. Thirteen consecutive patients suffering from chronic (mean disease duration 9.7 years) and therapy-resistant PD were treated unilaterally with an MRgFUS PTT. Primary relief assessment indicators were the score reduction of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and the patient estimation of global symptom relief (GSR) taken at 3 months follow-up. Final temperatures at target were between 52°C and 59°C. The MR examinations were performed before the treatment, 2 days and 3 months after it. The accuracy of the targeting was calculated on 2 days post-treatment MR pictures for each PTT lesion. The first four patients received a PTT using the lesional parameters applied for thalamotomies. They experienced clear-cut recurrences at 3 months (mean UPDRS relief 7.6%, mean GSR 22.5%), and their MR showed no sign of thermal lesion in T2-weighted (T2w) images. As a consequence, the treatment protocol was adapted for the following nine patients by applying repetition of the final temperatures 4 to 5 times. That produced thermocoagulations of larger volumes (172 mm(3) against 83 mm(3) for the first four patients), which remained visible at 3 months on T2w images. These nine patients enjoyed a mean UPDRS reduction of 60.9% and a GSR of 56.7%, very close to the results obtained with radiofrequency lesioning. The targeting accuracy for the whole patient group was 0.5, 0.5, and 0.6 mm for the anteroposterior (AP), mediolateral (ML), and dorsoventral (DV) dimensions, respectively. This study demonstrated the feasibility, safety, and accuracy of the MRgFUS PTT. To obtain similar results as the ones of RF PTT, it was necessary to integrate the fact that white matter, in this case, the pallidothalamic tract, requires repeated thermal exposition to achieve full lesioning and thus full therapeutic effect.Journal of therapeutic ultrasound. 01/2014; 2:11.
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ABSTRACT: In the nervous system, synchronization processes play an important role, e.g., in the context of information processing and motor control. However, pathological, excessive synchronization may strongly impair brain function and is a hallmark of several neurological disorders. This focused review addresses the question of how an abnormal neuronal synchronization can specifically be counteracted by invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation as, for instance, by deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, or by acoustic stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus. On the example of coordinated reset (CR) neuromodulation, we illustrate how insights into the dynamics of complex systems contribute to successful model-based approaches, which use methods from synergetics, non-linear dynamics, and statistical physics, for the development of novel therapies for normalization of brain function and synaptic connectivity. Based on the intrinsic multistability of the neuronal populations induced by spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), CR neuromodulation utilizes the mutual interdependence between synaptic connectivity and dynamics of the neuronal networks in order to restore more physiological patterns of connectivity via desynchronization of neuronal activity. The very goal is to shift the neuronal population by stimulation from an abnormally coupled and synchronized state to a desynchronized regime with normalized synaptic connectivity, which significantly outlasts the stimulation cessation, so that long-lasting therapeutic effects can be achieved.Frontiers in Neurology 12/2014; 5:268.