Vascular nutritional correlates of late-life depression.
ABSTRACT The authors sought to examine the association of vascular nutritional factors and depression in an elderly cohort of depression (currently and recently depressed) and comparison (never depressed) subjects.
Nutrient intake over the past year was assessed in 196 elderly depression and comparison individuals with a Block 1998 food-frequency questionnaire. Nutrient intake, body mass index, and Keys score (a measure of the serum cholesterol-raising capacity of the diet) were determined. Subjects were age 60 and over and were participants in a longitudinal study of major depression. All subjects received psychiatric and medical comorbidity assessments; depression subjects also received psychiatric treatment.
Vascular nutritional factors differed between depression and comparison subjects. The depression group had higher intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, higher body mass indices, lower alcohol intake, and higher Keys score than the comparison group. After controlling for age, sex, education, race, and medical comorbidity, associations remained for cholesterol, alcohol, and Keys score. Depression was found to be associated with overall dietary pattern as defined by total kilocalories, saturated fat, cholesterol, body mass index, polyunsaturated fat, sodium, and alcohol.
This study provides evidence that dietary vascular risk factors differ in individuals with current or prior depression when compared with individuals with no history of depression.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: Frailty, a state of increased risk of negative health outcomes, is increasingly recognized as a relevant concept for identifying older persons in need of preventative geriatric interventions. Even though broader concepts of frailty include psychological characteristics, frailty is largely neglected in mental health care. The aim of the present study is to examine the prevalence of physical frailty in depressed older patients and its potential overlap with depression criteria. Method: Cross-sectional observational study including 378 depressed and 132 non-depressed adults aged ≥60 years according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Physical frailty was defined as ≥3 out of 5 criteria (handgrip strength, weight loss, poor endurance, walking speed, low physical activity). Results: Prevalence rates of physical frailty were 27.2% and 9.1% among depressed and non-depressed participants, respectively, which remained significant after controlling for relevant covariates (odds ratio [OR] = 2.66 [95% confidence interval [C.I.] = 1.36, 5.24], p = .004). Physical frailty in depression was associated with more severe depressive symptoms; this association remained significant in subsequent analyses with purely physical proxies for frailty (hand grip strength, walking speed) and different severity measures of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: A quarter of depressed older patients is physically frail, especially the most depressed group. This cannot be explained by overlap in criteria and should be examined in future studies, primarily on its presumed clinical relevance.Aging and Mental Health 09/2013; DOI:10.1080/13607863.2013.827628 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have implicated Ca supplements in vascular risk elevation, and therefore these supplements may also be associated with the occurrence of brain lesions (or hyperintensities) in older adults. These lesions represent damage to brain tissue that is caused by ischaemia. In the present cross-sectional clinical observational study, the association between Ca-containing dietary supplement use and lesion volumes was investigated in a sample of 227 older adults (60 years and above). Food and supplemental Ca intakes were assessed with the Block 1998 FFQ; participants with supplemental Ca intake above zero were categorised as supplement users. Lesion volumes were determined from cranial MRI (1·5 tesla) scans using a semi-automated technique; volumes were log-transformed because they were non-normal. ANCOVA models revealed that supplement users had greater lesion volumes than non-users, even after controlling for food Ca intake, age, sex, race, years of education, energy intake, depression and hypertension (Ca supplement use: β = 0·34, se 0·10, F 1,217= 10·98, P= 0·0011). The influence of supplemental Ca use on lesion volume was of a magnitude similar to that of the influence of hypertension, a well-established risk factor for lesions. Among the supplement users, the amount of supplemental Ca was not associated with lesion volume (β = - 0·000035, se 0·00 015, F 1,139= 0·06, P= 0·81). The present study demonstrates that the use of Ca-containing dietary supplements, even low-dose supplements, by older adults may be associated with greater lesion volumes. Evaluation of randomised controlled trials is warranted to determine whether this relationship is a causal one.The British journal of nutrition 04/2014; 112(2):1-8. DOI:10.1017/S0007114514000828 · 3.34 Impact Factor
Article: Nutrition and Late-Life Depression[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: • Depression is a significant problem for older adults. • Dietary factors related to either vascular risk or brain health may be important for depression. • Obesity may promote depression. • Inadequate omega-3 fatty acid consumption or levels may be related to depression. • Folate is important for vascular and brain health but its role in depression is unclear. • Brain lesions and their potential dietary etiology may be significant for depression.