Article

The Sexual Arousal and Desire Inventory (SADI): A Multidimensional Scale to Assess Subjective Sexual Arousal and Desire

Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Department of Psychology, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Journal of Sexual Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.15). 09/2006; 3(5):853-77. DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2006.00293.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sexual arousal and desire are integral parts of the human sexual response that reflect physiological, emotional, and cognitive processes. Although subjective and physiological aspects of arousal and desire tend to be experienced concurrently, their differences become apparent in certain experimental and clinical populations in which one or more of these aspects are impaired. There are few subjective scales that assess sexual arousal and desire specifically in both men and women.
(i) To develop a multidimensional, descriptor-based Sexual Arousal and Desire Inventory (SADI) to assess subjective sexual arousal and desire in men and women; (ii) to evaluate convergent and divergent validity of the SADI; and (iii) to assess whether scores on the SADI would be altered when erotic fantasy or exposure to an erotic film was used to increase subjective arousal.
Adult men (N = 195) and women (N = 195) rated 54 descriptors as they applied to their normative experience of arousal and desire on a 5-point Likert scale. Another sample of men (N = 40) and women (N = 40) completed the SADI and other measures after viewing a 3-minute female-centered erotic film or engaging in a 3-minute period of erotic fantasy.
Principal components analyses derived factors that the scale descriptors loaded onto. These factors were categorized as subscales of the SADI, and gender differences in ratings and internal validity were analyzed statistically. Factors were considered subscales of the SADI, and mean ratings for each subscale were generated and related to the other scales used to assess convergent and divergent validity. These scales included the Feeling Scale, the Multiple Indicators of Subjective Sexual Arousal, the Sexual Desire Inventory, and the Attitudes Toward Erotica Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory.
Descriptors loaded onto four factors that accounted for 41.3% of the variance. Analysis of descriptor loadings > or = 0.30 revealed an Evaluative factor, a Physiological factor, a Motivational factor, and a Negative/Aversive factor based on the meaning of the descriptors. Men's and women's subjective experiences of sexual desire and arousal on the Physiological and Motivational factors were not significantly different, although on the Evaluative and Negative factors, statistically significant differences were found between the genders. Mean scores on the Evaluative factor were higher for men than for women, whereas mean scores on the Negative factor were higher for women than for men. Internal consistency estimates of the SADI and its subscales confirmed strong reliability. Mean scores on the Evaluative, Motivational, and Physiological subscales of the SADI were significantly higher in the fantasy condition than in the erotic clip condition. Women had significantly higher mean scores than men on the Physiological subscale in the fantasy condition. Cronbach's alpha coefficients demonstrated excellent reliability of the SADI subscales. Evidence of convergent validity between the SADI subscales and other scales that measured the same constructs was strong. Divergent validity was also confirmed between the SADI subscales and the other scales that did not measure levels of sexual arousal, desire, or affect, such as the BDI-II.
The SADI is a valid and reliable research tool to evaluate both state and trait aspects of subjective sexual arousal and desire in men and women.

Full-text

Available from: James G. Pfaus, Jun 14, 2014
1 Follower
 · 
454 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this article, we propose a clinical model for treating anxiety-related sexual dysfunctions that hinges on the use of mindfulness meditation practices. First, theoretical and empirical evidence for anxiety as either a cause or condition of several different sexual dysfunctions is provided. Next, the concept of mindfulness and the research that supports the use of mindfulness meditation practices in addressing anxiety are explained. The inherent link between mindfulness and sex-positivity is also addressed while acknowledging the need to emphasize both mindfulness and sex-positivity in therapy. The proposed model for the treatment of anxiety-related sexual dysfunctions using mindfulness practices within a sex-positive framework is outlined. It utilizes mindfulness-based practices such as body scan meditation and sitting meditation as well as several preexisting sex therapy interventions, including directed masturbation and sensate focus assignments. A case study is provided as an example of the progression of therapy and as a demonstration of the clinical viability of the model. Ultimately, this model illustrates a potential way in which mindfulness practices can be utilized within a sex-positive approach to sex therapy.
    Sexual and Relationship Therapy 03/2015; 30(2). DOI:10.1080/14681994.2015.1013023 · 0.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction.  Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in one entity. Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a new entity which is suggested to be defined as Restless Genital Syndrome. Aims.  The aims of this brief review are to give definitions of the different types of FSAD, describe their aetiology, prevalence and comorbidity with somatic and psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods.  The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience. Results.  Female Arousal Disorders have been defined in several ways with focus on the genital or subjective response or a combination of both. The prevalence varies and increases with increasing age, especially at the time of menopause, while distress decreases with age. Arousal disorders are often comorbid with other sexual problems and are of biopsychosocial etiology. In the assessment, a thorough sexological history as well as medical and gynecological history and examination are recommended. Treatment should be based on of the symptoms, clinical findings and, if possibly, on underlying etiology. Conclusion.  Recommendations are given for assessment and treatment of FSAD and PGAD. Giraldi A, Rellini AH, Pfaus J, and Laan E. Female sexual arousal disorders. J Sex Med **;**:**-**.
    Journal of Sexual Medicine 09/2012; 10(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2012.02820.x · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Trait sexual motivation defines a psychological construct that reflects the long-lasting degree of motivation for sexual activities, which is assumed to be the result of biological and sociocultural influences. With this definition, it shares commonalities with other sexuality-related constructs like sexual desire, sexual drive, sexual needs, and sexual compulsivity. The Trait Sexual Motivation Questionnaire (TSMQ) was developed in order to measure trait sexual motivation with its different facets. Several steps were conducted: First, items were composed assessing sexual desire, the effort made to gain sex, as well as specific sexual behaviors. Factor analysis of the data of a first sample (n = 256) was conducted. Second, the factor solution was verified by a confirmatory factor analysis in a second sample (n = 498) and construct validity was demonstrated. Third, the temporal stability of the TSMQ was tested in a third study (n = 59). Questionnaire data. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that trait sexual motivation is best characterized by four subscales: Solitary Sexuality, Importance of Sex, Seeking Sexual Encounters, and Comparison with Others. It could be shown that the test quality of the questionnaire is high. Most importantly for the trait concept, the retest reliability after 1 year was r = 0.87. Our results indicate that the TSMQ is indeed a suitable tool for measuring long-lasting sexual motivation with high test quality and high construct validity. A future differentiation between trait and state sexual motivation might be helpful for clinical as well as forensic research. Stark R, Kagerer S, Walter B, Vaitl D, Klucken T, and Wehrum-Osinsky S. Trait sexual motivation questionnaire: Concept and validation. J Sex Med **;**:**-**. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
    Journal of Sexual Medicine 02/2015; 12(4). DOI:10.1111/jsm.12843 · 3.15 Impact Factor