Cancer regression in patients after transfer of genetically engineered lymphocytes
ABSTRACT Through the adoptive transfer of lymphocytes after host immunodepletion, it is possible to mediate objective cancer regression in human patients with metastatic melanoma. However, the generation of tumor-specific T cells in this mode of immunotherapy is often limiting. Here we report the ability to specifically confer tumor recognition by autologous lymphocytes from peripheral blood by using a retrovirus that encodes a T cell receptor. Adoptive transfer of these transduced cells in 15 patients resulted in durable engraftment at levels exceeding 10% of peripheral blood lymphocytes for at least 2 months after the infusion. We observed high sustained levels of circulating, engineered cells at 1 year after infusion in two patients who both demonstrated objective regression of metastatic melanoma lesions. This study suggests the therapeutic potential of genetically engineered cells for the biologic therapy of cancer.
SourceAvailable from: Mattias Lindberg11/2012, Degree: PhD, Supervisor: Pr. Pierre LEHN, Pr. Tristan MONTIER
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ABSTRACT: Blinatumomab, a bispecific antibody construct targeting CD19, is the most advanced member of bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE(®)) molecules. The clinical development program includes B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Minimal residual disease (MRD) response in patients with MRD-positive B-precursor ALL has translated into long-term clinical benefits as demonstrated by an estimated relapse-free survival (RFS) of 60% with sustained MRD negativity at a follow-up of 31 months. Remissions induced in pediatric and adult patients with relapsed/refractory B-precursor ALL have allowed for successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in this setting. Blinatumomab has also induced durable responses in low-grade B-cell NHL. Blinatumomab recently gained approval in the United States by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-negative B-precursor relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia. AMG 330 is an investigational anti-CD33 BiTE(®) antibody construct. Targeting CD33 ex vivo in primary samples from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has shown AMG 330-mediated T-cell expansion and T-cell cytotoxicity against AML cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Molecular Immunology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2015.02.033 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer and its incidence is gradually increasing worldwide. Patients with metastatic melanoma have a very poor prognosis (estimated 5-year survival rate of <16%). In the last few years, several drugs have been approved for malignant melanoma, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint blockades. Although new therapeutic agents have improved progression-free and overall survival, their use is limited by drug resistance and drug-related toxicity. At the same time, adoptive cell therapy of metastatic melanoma with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes has shown promising results in preclinical and clinical studies. In this review, we summarize the currently available drugs for treatment of malignant melanoma. In addition, we suggest cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells as another candidate approach for adoptive cell therapy of melanoma. Our preclinical study and several previous studies have shown that CIK cells have potent anti-tumor activity against melanomas in vitro and in an in vivo human tumor xenograft model without any toxicity.Immune Network 04/2015; 15(2):58-65. DOI:10.4110/in.2015.15.2.58