Bioengineered chondrocyte sheets may be potentially useful for the treatment of partial thickness defects of articular cartilage
ABSTRACT Some treatments for full thickness defects of articular cartilage, such as cultured chondrocyte transplantation, have already been done. However, to overcome osteoarthritis, we must further study the partial thickness defect of articular cartilage. It is much more difficult to repair a partial thickness defect because few repairing cells can address such injured sites. We herein show that bioengineered layered chondrocyte sheets using temperature-responsive culture dishes may be a potentially useful treatment for partial thickness defects. We evaluated the property of these sheets using real-time PCR and histological findings, and allografted these sheets to evaluate the effect of treatment using a rabbit partial model. In conclusion, layered chondrocyte sheets were able to maintain the cartilageous phenotype, and could be attached to the sites of cartilage damage which acted as a barrier to prevent a loss of proteoglycan from these sites and to protect them from catabolic factors in the joint.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the injury characteristics of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), and to analyse the correlations between the injury patterns of MPFL and articular cartilage lesions of the lateral femoral condyle in children and adolescents with acute lateral patellar dislocation (LPD). Magnetic resonance (MR) images were prospectively obtained in 127 consecutive children and adolescents with acute LPD. Images were acquired using standardised protocols and these were independently evaluated by two radiologists. Fifty-four cases of partial MPFL tear and 69 cases of complete MPFL tear were identified. Injuries occurred at an isolated patellar insertion (PAT) in 47 cases, an isolated femoral attachment (FEM) in 41 cases and an isolated mid-substance (MID) in four cases. More than one site of injury to the MPFL (COM) was identified in 31 cases. The prevalence rate of chondral and osteochondral lesions of the lateral femoral condyle were 23.4% (11/47) and 29.8% (14/47) in the PAT subgroup, 7.3% (3/41) and 9.8% (4/41) in the FEM subgroup and 25.8% (8/31) and 32.3% (10/31) in the COM subgroup, respectively. The PAT and COM subgroups showed significantly higher prevalence rate of chondral and osteochondral lesions in the lateral femoral condyle when compared with the FEM subgroup. The prevalence rate of chondral and osteochondral lesions of the lateral femoral condyle were 17.4% (12/69) and 30.4% (21/69) in the complete MPFL tear subgroup and 20.4% (11/54) and 13% (7/54) in the partial MPFL tear subgroup, respectively. The subgroup of the complete MPFL tear showed significantly higher prevalence rate of osteochondral lesions in the lateral femoral condyle when compared with the subgroup of the partial MPFL tear. Firstly, the MPFL is most easily injured at the PAT, and secondly at the FEM in children and adolescents after acute LPD. The complete MPFL tear is more often concomitant with osteochondral lesions of the lateral femoral condyle than the partial MPFL tear. The isolated patellar-sided MPFL tear and the combined MPFL tear are more easily concomitant with chondral lesions and osteochondral lesions of the lateral femoral condyle than the isolated femoral-sided MPFL tear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Injury 02/2015; 23. DOI:10.1016/j.injury.2015.02.001 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An attractive cell source for cartilage tissue engineering, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) can be easily expanded and signaled to differentiate into chondrocytes. This study explores the influence of growth factor distribution and release kinetics on cartilage formation within 3D hASC constructs incorporated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) loaded gelatin microspheres. The amount of microspheres, TGF-β1 concentration, and polymer degradation rate were varied within hASC aggregates. Microsphere and TGF-β1 loading concentrations were identified that resulted in glycosaminoglycan production comparable to those of control aggregates cultured in TGF-β1-containing medium. Self-assembling hASC sheets were then engineered for the production of larger, more clinically relevant constructs. Chondrogenesis was observed in hASC-only sheets cultured with exogenous TGF-β1 at 3 weeks. Importantly, sheets with incorporated TGF-β1-loaded microspheres achieved glycosaminoglycan production levels similar to sheets treated with exogenous TGF-β1. Cartilage formation was confirmed histologically via observation of cartilage-like morphology and glycosaminoglycan staining. This is the first demonstration of the self-assembly of hASCs into high-density cell sheets capable of forming cartilage in the presence of exogenous TGF-β1 or with TGF-β1-releasing microspheres. Microsphere incorporation may bypass the need for extended in vitro culture, potentially allowing hASC sheets to be implanted more rapidly into defects to regenerate cartilage in vivo.Tissue Engineering Part A 05/2014; DOI:10.1089/ten.TEA.2012.0551 · 4.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background In recent years, several methods have been developed for repairing full-thickness cartilage defects by tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells. Most of these use scaffolds to achieve sufficient thickness. However, considering the potential influence of scaffolds on the surrounding microenvironment, as well as immunological issues, it is desirable to develop a scaffold-free technique. In this study, we developed a novel technique, a scaffold-free autologous construct derived from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), and successfully use this technique to regenerate cartilage and subchondral bone to repair an osteochondral defect in rabbit knees.MethodsBM-MSCs were isolated from bone marrow liquid aspirated from the iliac crest of rabbits. After expansion in culture dishes and re-suspension in 96-well plates, the cells spontaneously aggregated into a spheroid-like structure. The spheroids were loaded into a tube-shaped Teflon mold with a 5-mm height and maintained under air-liquid interface conditions. These loaded spheroids fused with each other, resulting in a cylinder-shaped construct made of fused cells that conformed to the inner shape of the mold. The construct was implanted into an osteochondral defect in rabbit knees and histologically analyzed 24 and 52 weeks after implantation using Wakitani¿s scoring system.ResultsBoth bone and cartilage were regenerated, maintaining a constant thickness of cartilage. The mean histological score was 10¿±¿1.7 in the 24-week group and 9.7¿±¿0.6 in the 52-week group. There was no significant difference between the 24- and 52-week groups in either parameter of the score, indicating that no deterioration of the repaired tissue occurred during the intervening period.Conclusions Using our novel technique, which employs a three-dimensional scaffold-free autologous construct derived from BM-MSCs, we successfully achieved simultaneous regeneration of bone and cartilage for up to 1 year in vivo. This method has potential for clinical use as a safe and effective method for repairing bone and cartilage defects.Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 10/2014; 9(1):98. DOI:10.1186/s13018-014-0098-z · 1.58 Impact Factor