Bioengineered chondrocyte sheets may be potentially useful for the treatment of partial thickness defects of articular cartilage
ABSTRACT Some treatments for full thickness defects of articular cartilage, such as cultured chondrocyte transplantation, have already been done. However, to overcome osteoarthritis, we must further study the partial thickness defect of articular cartilage. It is much more difficult to repair a partial thickness defect because few repairing cells can address such injured sites. We herein show that bioengineered layered chondrocyte sheets using temperature-responsive culture dishes may be a potentially useful treatment for partial thickness defects. We evaluated the property of these sheets using real-time PCR and histological findings, and allografted these sheets to evaluate the effect of treatment using a rabbit partial model. In conclusion, layered chondrocyte sheets were able to maintain the cartilageous phenotype, and could be attached to the sites of cartilage damage which acted as a barrier to prevent a loss of proteoglycan from these sites and to protect them from catabolic factors in the joint.
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ABSTRACT: Cartilage damage is typically treated by chondrocyte transplantation, mosaicplasty, or microfracture. Recent advances in tissue engineering have prompted research on techniques to repair articular cartilage damage using a variety of transplanted cells. We studied the repair and regeneration of cartilage damage using layered chondrocyte sheets prepared in a temperature-responsive culture dish. We previously reported achieving robust tissue repair when covering only the surface layer of partial-thickness defects with layered chondrocyte sheets in domestic rabbits. We also reported good Safranin O staining and integration with surrounding tissue in a minipig model of full-thickness cartilaginous defects in the knee joint. We have continued our studies using human chondrocytes obtained from patients under IRB approval, and have confirmed the safety and efficacy of chondrocyte sheets, and have submitted a report to the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare in Japan. In 2011, the Ministry gave us approval to perform a clinical study of joint repair using cell sheets. We have just started implanting cell sheets in patients at Tokai University Hospital. Anat Rec, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 01/2014; 297(1). DOI:10.1002/ar.22829 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recently, regenerative medicine using engineered three-dimensional (3D) tissues has been focused. In the fields of cell therapy and regenerative medicine, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are attractive autologous cell sources. While, in bioengineered tissues, a 3D environment may affect the differentiation of the stem cells, little is known regarding the effect of 3D environment on cellular differentiation. In this study, MSC differentiation in in vitro 3D tissue models was assessed by human endometrial gland-derived MSCs (hEMSCs) and cell sheet technology. hEMSC sheets were layered into cell-dense 3D tissues and were cultured on porous membranes. The tissue sections revealed that chondrocyte-like cells were found within the multilayered cell sheets even at 24 h after layering. Immunostainings of chondrospecific markers were positive within those cell sheet constructs. In addition, sulfated glycosaminoglycan accumulation within the tissues increased in proportion to the numbers of layered cell sheets. The findings suggested that a high cell density and hypoxic environment in 3D tissues by layering cell sheets might accelerate a rapid differentiation of hEMSCs into chondrocytes without the help of chondro-differentiation reagents. These tissue models using cell sheets would give new insights to stem cell differentiation in 3D environment and contribute to the future application of stem cells to cartilage regenerative therapy.The Scientific World Journal 11/2013; 2013:359109. DOI:10.1155/2013/359109 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although cardiac myocytes adherent to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) dishes retain the spontaneous beating, the pulsatile amplitude is highly limited compared to that in vivo. One of the main reasons for the limited pulsation may be the interface between the cells and the TCPS surfaces. Release of these cells from rigid TCPS surfaces may augment their pulsatile amplitude. With this perspective, we have developed a novel cell manipulation technique to detach cultured cardiac myocytes from rigid surfaces and to rescue higher pulsatile amplitude of the cells using temperature-responsive culture dishes and discuss the possibility of improving this heart tissue model. Primary cardiac myocytes were cultured on the slightly hydrophobic dish surfaces grafted with a temperature-responsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). Cells adhered and proliferated, forming confluent cardiac myocyte sheets in a fashion similar to those on ungrafted TCPS dishes. Decrease in culture temperature resulted in surface change of the polymer from slight hydrophobic to highly hydrophilic due to extensive hydration of the grafted polymer on the dishes. This results in release of cardiac myocyte sheets from the dishes without enzymatic or EDTA treatment. When no support was used, the detached cardiac myocyte sheets shrank to one-tenth size, which ceased their pulsation. When chitin membranes were used to support the confluent sheets to prevent cell shrinkage, the detached cell sheets could be transferred and readily adhered onto another virgin TCPS dishes. These transferred cell sheets preserved the similar cell morphology and pulsation to those before the detachment. When polyethylene meshes were used to support cell sheet transfer, detached cardiac myocyte sheets partially attached to the mesh threads. Then, the constructs were inverted and placed in another culture dish to prevent direct association to dish surfaces. Moreover, the cardiac myocyte sheets were reorganized to heart tissue-like structures by the unisotropic contraction orientated by the mesh threads, and the pulsatile amplitude increased more than 10 times higher. This technique would bring about new insight in tissue engineering as well as cultured heart model.Tissue Engineering 05/2001; 7(2):141-51. DOI:10.1089/107632701300062732 · 4.25 Impact Factor