Bioengineered chondrocyte sheets may be potentially useful for the treatment of partial thickness defects of articular cartilage.
ABSTRACT Some treatments for full thickness defects of articular cartilage, such as cultured chondrocyte transplantation, have already been done. However, to overcome osteoarthritis, we must further study the partial thickness defect of articular cartilage. It is much more difficult to repair a partial thickness defect because few repairing cells can address such injured sites. We herein show that bioengineered layered chondrocyte sheets using temperature-responsive culture dishes may be a potentially useful treatment for partial thickness defects. We evaluated the property of these sheets using real-time PCR and histological findings, and allografted these sheets to evaluate the effect of treatment using a rabbit partial model. In conclusion, layered chondrocyte sheets were able to maintain the cartilageous phenotype, and could be attached to the sites of cartilage damage which acted as a barrier to prevent a loss of proteoglycan from these sites and to protect them from catabolic factors in the joint.
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ABSTRACT: Cartilage damage is typically treated by chondrocyte transplantation, mosaicplasty, or microfracture. Recent advances in tissue engineering have prompted research on techniques to repair articular cartilage damage using a variety of transplanted cells. We studied the repair and regeneration of cartilage damage using layered chondrocyte sheets prepared in a temperature-responsive culture dish. We previously reported achieving robust tissue repair when covering only the surface layer of partial-thickness defects with layered chondrocyte sheets in domestic rabbits. We also reported good Safranin O staining and integration with surrounding tissue in a minipig model of full-thickness cartilaginous defects in the knee joint. We have continued our studies using human chondrocytes obtained from patients under IRB approval, and have confirmed the safety and efficacy of chondrocyte sheets, and have submitted a report to the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare in Japan. In 2011, the Ministry gave us approval to perform a clinical study of joint repair using cell sheets. We have just started implanting cell sheets in patients at Tokai University Hospital. Anat Rec, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 12/2013; · 1.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In our previous studies, we have demonstrated effective regeneration of cartilage through the creation and application of layered cell sheets that combine both chondrocytes and synovial cells. In this study, we were able to demonstrate that cells derived from cell sheets can survive for long periods after transplantation into rat knee joints having osteochondral defects. We established a method for generating cell sheets from firefly luciferase-expressing chondrocytes obtained from transgenic Lewis rats, and carried out allogenic transplantation of these cell sheets into wild-type Lewis rats. We then administered luciferin and monitored the survival of the transplanted cells by using bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Our data showed that the transplanted cells survived and could be detected for more than 21 months, which was longer than expected. Furthermore, the BLI data showed that the transplanted cells remained in the knee joint and did not migrate to other parts of the body, thus confirming the safety of the cell sheets. In this study, we monitored the duration of survival of cell sheets composed of only chondrocytes, only synovial cells, or both chondrocytes and synovial cells, and found that all three types of cell sheets survived for an extended period of time.Biomaterials 12/2013; · 8.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cartilage defects are normally concomitant with posttraumatic inflammation and pose a major challenge in cartilage repair. Due to the avascular nature of cartilage and its inability to surmount an inflammatory response, the cartilage is easily attacked by pro-inflammatory factors and oxidative stress; if left untreated, osteoarthritis may develop. Suppression of inflammation has always been a crux for cartilage repair. Pharmacological drugs have been successfully applied in cartilage repair; however, they cannot optimally work alone. This review paper will summarize current pharmacological drugs and their application in cartilage repair. The development of extracellular matrix-based scaffolds and preconditioned tissue-specific stem cells will be emphasized because both of these tissue engineering components could contribute to an enhanced ability not only for cartilage regeneration but also for anti-inflammation. These strategies could be combined to boost cartilage repair under inflammatory conditions.Tissue Engineering Part B Reviews 05/2014; · 4.64 Impact Factor