Evaluating the relationship between erectile dysfunction and dose received by the penile bulb: Using data from a randomised controlled trial of conformal radiotherapy in prostate cancer (MRC RT01, ISRCTN47772397)
ABSTRACT To evaluate the relationship between erectile function and the radiation dose to the penile bulb and other proximal penile structures in men receiving conformal radiotherapy (CFRT) for prostate cancer (PCa).
The Medical Research Council (MRC) RT01 trial randomised 843 men who had localised PCa to receive either 64 or 74 Gy after 3 - 6 months neoadjuvant hormonal treatment. Fifty-one men were selected who were potent prior to hormonal treatment, having completed both pre-hormone and 2-year post-CFRT Quality of Life assessments, and on whom dose volume data were available for analysis. The men were divided into three groups according to 2-year follow-up: potent, reduced potency, and impotent. The bulb of the penis together with the crura, were outlined on restored treatment plans. Dose - volume histograms were generated and compared between the three groups. An ordered logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio of a range of dose - volume parameters to the penile bulb and effect on erectile dysfunction. The dose to the penile bulb was correlated to the dose received by the crura.
Of the 51 patients, 12 remained potent, 22 had reduced potency, and 17 were impotent at 2 years. No differences were seen in mean dose to the penile bulb by allocated treatment (t test = 1.61, p = 0.11). The mean doses to the penile bulb received by the potent, reduced potency, and impotent groups were 45.5 Gy (SD 17.1), 48 Gy (SD 16.1), and 59.2 Gy (SD 13.8), respectively. There was a strong correlation between the mean dose received by the penile bulb and dose to the crura (r = 0.82, p < 0.0001). 83.3% of impotent patients received a D90 > or = 50 Gy to the penile bulb compared with 29.4% of patients who maintained potency at 2 years (p = 0.006).
There is evidence from this study to suggest a dose volume effect on the penile bulb and erectile dysfunction. A D90 > or = 50 Gy is associated with a significant risk of erectile dysfunction and this should form a basis for selecting dose constraints in future dose escalation studies.
- SourceAvailable from: Mike Partridge
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- "In order to facilitate inter-patient comparisons, the maps were normalized in the longitudinal direction by interpolation to maps of 21×21 pixels. This was implemented using in-house software Guiness (Mangar et al. 2006). Each DSM was next described as a set of binary images. "
ABSTRACT: Many models exist for predicting toxicities based on dose-volume histograms (DVHs) or dose-surface histograms (DSHs). This approach has several drawbacks as firstly the reduction of the dose distribution to a histogram results in the loss of spatial information and secondly the bins of the histograms are highly correlated with each other. Furthermore, some of the complex nonlinear models proposed in the past lack a direct physical interpretation and the ability to predict probabilities rather than binary outcomes. We propose a parameterized representation of the 3D distribution of the dose to the rectal wall which explicitly includes geometrical information in the form of the eccentricity of the dose distribution as well as its lateral and longitudinal extent. We use a nonlinear kernel-based probabilistic model to predict late rectal toxicity based on the parameterized dose distribution and assessed its predictive power using data from the MRC RT01 trial (ISCTRN 47772397). The endpoints under consideration were rectal bleeding, loose stools, and a global toxicity score. We extract simple rules identifying 3D dose patterns related to a specifically low risk of complication. Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models based on parameterized representations of geometrical and volumetric measures resulted in areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.66, 0.63 and 0.67 for predicting rectal bleeding, loose stools and global toxicity, respectively. In comparison, NTCP models based on standard DVHs performed worse and resulted in AUCs of 0.59 for all three endpoints. In conclusion, we have presented low-dimensional, interpretable and nonlinear NTCP models based on the parameterized representation of the dose to the rectal wall. These models had a higher predictive power than models based on standard DVHs and their low dimensionality allowed for the identification of 3D dose patterns related to a low risk of complication.Physics in Medicine and Biology 03/2011; 56(7):2103-18. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/56/7/013 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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- "These maps were normalized in the longitudinal direction by interpolation to maps of 21×21 pixels, as the rectum had been outlined typically over a length of 20- 22 slices of 0.5 cm. This was implemented using in-house software Guiness (Mangar et al. 2006) and MATLAB (MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA). "
ABSTRACT: The incidence of late-toxicities after radiotherapy can be modelled based on the dose delivered to the organ under consideration. Most predictive models reduce the dose distribution to a set of dose-volume parameters and do not take the spatial distribution of the dose into account. The aim of this study was to develop a classifier predicting radiation-induced rectal bleeding using all available information on the dose to the rectal wall. The dose was projected on a two-dimensional dose-surface map (DSM) by virtual rectum-unfolding. These DSMs were used as inputs for a classification method based on locally connected neural networks. In contrast to fully connected conventional neural nets, locally connected nets take the topology of the input into account. In order to train the nets, data from 329 patients from the RT01 trial (ISRCTN 47772397) were split into ten roughly equal parts. By using nine of these parts as a training set and the remaining part as an independent test set, a ten-fold cross-validation was performed. Ensemble learning was used and 250 nets were built from randomly selected patients from the training set. Out of these 250 nets, an ensemble of expert nets was chosen. The performances of the full ensemble and of the expert ensemble were quantified by using receiver-operator-characteristic (ROC) curves. In order to quantify the predictive power of the shape, ensembles of fully connected conventional neural nets based on dose-surface histograms (DSHs) were generated and their performances were quantified. The expert ensembles performed better than or equally as well as the full ensembles. The area under the ROC curve for the DSM-based expert ensemble was 0.64. The area under the ROC curve for the DSH-based expert ensemble equalled 0.59. This difference in performance indicates that not only volumetric, but also morphological aspects of the dose distribution are correlated to rectal bleeding after radiotherapy. Thus, the shape of the dose distribution should be taken into account when a predictive model for radiation-induced rectal bleeding is developed.Physics in Medicine and Biology 09/2009; 54(17):5139-53. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/54/17/005 · 2.92 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: Effects of cascading on the performance of a switching subsystem[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Larger size connectivity subsystems can be formed by cascading smaller size switching elements. Alternative architectures have been proposed to form high-speed LANs based on the idea of cascading switching elements. The performance of such a system that is formed by cascading two switching elements is investigated. The mean delay of a unidirectional write operation between users that are connected to different switching elements is obtained. The results show that the performance depends strongly on the intra-switch traffic intensity as well as the number of links that connects the two switching elementsGlobal Telecommunications Conference, 1992. Conference Record., GLOBECOM '92. Communication for Global Users., IEEE; 01/1993