The C2 domain of PKCalpha is a Ca2+ -dependent PtdIns(4,5)P2 sensing domain: a new insight into an old pathway.

Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular (A), Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Murcia Apartado de Correos 4021, E-30100-Murcia, Spain.
Journal of Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 3.91). 11/2006; 362(5):901-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2006.07.093
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The C2 domain is a targeting domain that responds to intracellular Ca2+ signals in classical protein kinases (PKCs) and mediates the translocation of its host protein to membranes. Recent studies have revealed a new motif in the C2 domain, named the lysine-rich cluster, that interacts with acidic phospholipids. The purpose of this work was to characterize the molecular mechanism by which PtdIns(4,5)P2 specifically interacts with this motif. Using a combination of isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and time-lapse confocal microscopy, we show here that Ca2+ specifically binds to the Ca2+ -binding region, facilitating PtdIns(4,5)P2 access to the lysine-rich cluster. The magnitude of PtdIns(4,5)P2 binding is greater than in the case of other polyphosphate phosphatidylinositols. Very importantly, the residues involved in PtdIns(4,5)P2 binding are essential for the plasma membrane localization of PKCalpha when RBL-2H3 cells are stimulated through their IgE receptors. Additionally, CFP-PH and CFP-C1 domains were used as bioprobes to demonstrate the co-existence of PtdIns(4,5)P2 and diacylglycerol in the plasma membrane, and it was shown that although a fraction of PtdIns(4,5)P2 is hydrolyzed to generate diacylglycerol and IP3, an important amount still remains in the membrane where it is available to activate PKCalpha. These findings entail revision of the currently accepted model of PKCalpha recruitment to the membrane and its activation.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The C2 domain of PKCα possesses two different binding sites, one for Ca(2+) and phosphatidylserine and a second one that binds PIP2 with very high affinity. The enzymatic activity of PKCα was studied by activating it with large unilamellar lipid vesicles, varying the concentration of Ca(2+) and the contents of dioleylglycerol (DOG), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphadidylserine (POPS) in these model membranes. The results showed that PIP2 increased the Vmax of PKCα and, when the PIP2 concentration was 5 mol% of the total lipid in the membrane, the addition of 2 mol% of DOG did not increase the activity. In addition PIP2 decreases K0.5 of Ca(2+) more than 3-fold, that of DOG almost 5-fold and that of POPS by a half. The K0.5 values of PIP2 amounted to only 0.11 µM in the presence of DOG and 0.39 in its absence, which is within the expected physiological range for the inner monolayer of a mammalian plasma membrane. As a consequence, PKCα may be expected to operate near its maximum capacity even in the absence of a cell signal producing diacylglycerol. Nevertheless, we have shown that the presence of DOG may also help, since the K0.5 for PIP2 notably decreases in its presence. Taken together, these results underline the great importance of PIP2 in the activation of PKCα and demonstrate that in its presence, the most important cell signal for triggering the activity of this enzyme is the increase in the concentration of cytoplasmic Ca(2+).
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e69041. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have used attenuated total internal reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to study the association of the C2 domain from protein kinase Cα (PKCα) with different phospholipid membranes, so as to characterise the mode of membrane docking and its modulation by the second-messenger lipid PIP₂. In parallel, we have also examined the membrane interaction of the C2 domain from cytosolic phospholipase A₂. PIP₂ did not induce significant changes in secondary structure of the membrane-bound PKCα-C2 domain, nor did binding of the PKCα-C2 domain change the dichroic ratios of the lipid chains, whereas the C2 domain from phospholipase A₂ did perturb the lipid chain orientation. Measurements of the dichroic ratios for the amide I and amide II protein bands were combined so as to distinguish the tilt of the β-sheets from that of the β-strands within the sheet. When associated with POPC/POPS membranes, the β-sandwich of the PKCα-C2 domain is inclined at an angle α=35° to the membrane normal, i.e., is oriented more nearly perpendicular than parallel to the membrane. In the process of membrane docking, the tilt angle increases to α=44° in the presence of PIP₂, indicating that the β-sandwich comes closer to the membrane surface, so confirming the importance of this lipid in determining docking of the C2 domain and consequent activation of PKCα.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2011; 1808(3):684-95. · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Dock180 family of atypical Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Rho-GEFs) regulate a variety of processes involving cellular or subcellular polarization, including cell migration and phagocytosis. Each contains a Dock homology region-1 (DHR-1) domain that is required to localize its GEF activity to a specific membrane compartment where levels of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)) are up-regulated by the local activity of PtdIns 3-kinase. Here we define the structural and energetic bases of phosphoinositide specificity by the DHR-1 domain of Dock1 (a GEF for Rac1), and show that DHR-1 utilizes a C2 domain scaffold and surface loops to create a basic pocket on its upper surface for recognition of the PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) head group. The pocket has many of the characteristics of those observed in pleckstrin homology domains. We show that point mutations in the pocket that abolish phospholipid binding in vitro ablate the ability of Dock1 to induce cell polarization, and propose a model that brings together recent mechanistic and structural studies to rationalize the central role of DHR-1 in dynamic membrane targeting of the Rho-GEF activity of Dock180.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2010; 285(17):13211-22. · 4.65 Impact Factor