The C2 domain of PKCalpha is a Ca2+ -dependent PtdIns(4,5)P2 sensing domain: a new insight into an old pathway.
ABSTRACT The C2 domain is a targeting domain that responds to intracellular Ca2+ signals in classical protein kinases (PKCs) and mediates the translocation of its host protein to membranes. Recent studies have revealed a new motif in the C2 domain, named the lysine-rich cluster, that interacts with acidic phospholipids. The purpose of this work was to characterize the molecular mechanism by which PtdIns(4,5)P2 specifically interacts with this motif. Using a combination of isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and time-lapse confocal microscopy, we show here that Ca2+ specifically binds to the Ca2+ -binding region, facilitating PtdIns(4,5)P2 access to the lysine-rich cluster. The magnitude of PtdIns(4,5)P2 binding is greater than in the case of other polyphosphate phosphatidylinositols. Very importantly, the residues involved in PtdIns(4,5)P2 binding are essential for the plasma membrane localization of PKCalpha when RBL-2H3 cells are stimulated through their IgE receptors. Additionally, CFP-PH and CFP-C1 domains were used as bioprobes to demonstrate the co-existence of PtdIns(4,5)P2 and diacylglycerol in the plasma membrane, and it was shown that although a fraction of PtdIns(4,5)P2 is hydrolyzed to generate diacylglycerol and IP3, an important amount still remains in the membrane where it is available to activate PKCalpha. These findings entail revision of the currently accepted model of PKCalpha recruitment to the membrane and its activation.
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ABSTRACT: Regulated relocalization of signaling and trafficking proteins is crucial for the control of many cellular processes and is driven by a series of domains that respond to alterations at membrane surfaces. The first examples of these domains--conditional peripheral membrane proteins--included C1, C2, PH, PX, and FYVE domains, which specifically recognize single tightly regulated membrane components such as diacylglycerol or phosphoinositides. The structural basis for this recognition is now well understood. Efforts to identify additional domains with similar functions that bind other targets (or participate in unexplained cellular processes) have not yielded many more examples of specific phospholipid-binding domains. Instead, most of the recently discovered conditional peripheral membrane proteins bind multiple targets (each with limited specificity), relying on coincidence detection and/or recognizing broader physical properties of the membrane such as charge or curvature. This broader range of recognition modes presents significant methodological challenges for a full structural understanding.Structure 12/2011; 20(1):15-27. DOI:10.1016/j.str.2011.11.012 · 6.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have used attenuated total internal reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to study the association of the C2 domain from protein kinase Cα (PKCα) with different phospholipid membranes, so as to characterise the mode of membrane docking and its modulation by the second-messenger lipid PIP₂. In parallel, we have also examined the membrane interaction of the C2 domain from cytosolic phospholipase A₂. PIP₂ did not induce significant changes in secondary structure of the membrane-bound PKCα-C2 domain, nor did binding of the PKCα-C2 domain change the dichroic ratios of the lipid chains, whereas the C2 domain from phospholipase A₂ did perturb the lipid chain orientation. Measurements of the dichroic ratios for the amide I and amide II protein bands were combined so as to distinguish the tilt of the β-sheets from that of the β-strands within the sheet. When associated with POPC/POPS membranes, the β-sandwich of the PKCα-C2 domain is inclined at an angle α=35° to the membrane normal, i.e., is oriented more nearly perpendicular than parallel to the membrane. In the process of membrane docking, the tilt angle increases to α=44° in the presence of PIP₂, indicating that the β-sandwich comes closer to the membrane surface, so confirming the importance of this lipid in determining docking of the C2 domain and consequent activation of PKCα.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2011; 1808(3):684-95. DOI:10.1016/j.bbamem.2010.11.035 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is a key player in the neurotransmitter release process. Rabphilin-3A is a neuronal C2 domain tandem containing protein that is involved in this process. Both its C2 domains (C2A and C2B) are able to bind PIP2. The investigation of the interactions of the two C2 domains with the PIP2 headgroup IP3 (inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate) by NMR showed that a well-defined binding site can be described on the concave surface of each domain. The binding modes of the two domains are different. The binding of IP3 to the C2A domain is strongly enhanced by Ca(2+) and is characterized by a K(D) of 55 microM in the presence of a saturating concentration of Ca(2+) (5 mM). Reciprocally, the binding of IP3 increases the apparent Ca(2+)-binding affinity of the C2A domain in agreement with a Target-Activated Messenger Affinity (TAMA) mechanism. The C2B domain binds IP3 in a Ca(2+)-independent fashion with low affinity. These different PIP2 headgroup recognition modes suggest that PIP2 is a target of the C2A domain of rabphilin-3A while this phospholipid is an effector of the C2B domain.Protein Science 07/2008; 17(6):1025-34. DOI:10.1110/ps.073326608 · 2.86 Impact Factor