Cutting edge: TREM-2 attenuates macrophage activation.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 10/2006; 177(6):3520-4. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.177.6.3520
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2) delivers intracellular signals through the adaptor DAP12 to regulate myeloid cell function both within and outside the immune system. The role of TREM-2 in immunity has been obscured by the failure to detect expression of the TREM-2 protein in vivo. In this study, we show that TREM-2 is expressed on macrophages infiltrating the tissues from the circulation and that alternative activation with IL-4 can induce TREM-2. TREM-2 expression is abrogated by macrophage maturation with LPS of IFN-gamma. Using TREM-2(-/-) mice, we find that TREM-2 functions to inhibit cytokine production by macrophages in response to the TLR ligands LPS, zymosan, and CpG. Furthermore, we find that TREM-2 completely accounts for the increased cytokine production previously reported by DAP12(-/-) macrophages. Taken together, these data show that TREM-2 is expressed on newly differentiated and alternatively activated macrophages and functions to restrain macrophage activation.

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    ABSTRACT: Dysfunctional variants of the innate immune cell surface receptor TREM2 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2) were identified as major genetic risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. Here we assessed a possible involvement of TREM2 in prion disease. We report that TREM2 expression by microglia is significantly up-regulated upon prion infection. However, depletion of TREM2 did not affect disease incubation time and survival after intracerebral prion infection. Interestingly, markers of microglial activation were attenuated in prion-infected TREM2(-/-) mice, suggesting an involvement of TREM2 in prion-induced microglial activation. Further phenotype profiling of microglia revealed that TREM2 deficiency did not change microglial phenotypes. We conclude that TREM2 is involved in prion-induced microglial activation but does not noticeably modulate the pathogenesis of experimental prion infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Neurobiology of aging 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2015.02.019 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Telocytes (TCs) is an interstitial cell with extremely long and thin telopodes (Tps) with thin segments (podomers) and dilations (podoms) to interact with neighboring cells. TCs have been found in different organs, while there is still a lack of TCs-specific biomarkers to distinguish TCs from the other cells. Results We compared gene expression profiles of murine pulmonary TCs on days 5 (TC5) and days 10 (TC10) with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), fibroblasts (Fbs), alveolar type II cells (ATII), airway basal cells (ABCs), proximal airway cells (PACs), CD8+ T cells from bronchial lymph nodes (T-BL), and CD8+ T cells from lungs (T-LL). The chromosome 17 and 18 genes were extracted for further analysis. The TCs-specific genes and functional networks were identified and analyzed by bioinformatics tools. 16 and 10 of TCs-specific genes were up-regulated and 68 and 22 were down-regulated in chromosome 17 and 18, as compared with other cells respectively. Of them, Mapk14 and Trem2 were up-regulated to indicate the biological function of TCs in immune regulation, and up-regulated MCFD2 and down-regulated E4F1 and PDCD2 had an association with tissue homeostasis for TCs. Over-expressed Dpysl3 may promote TCs self-proliferation and cell-cell network forming. Conclusions The differential gene expression in chromosomes 17 and 18 clearly revealed that TCs were the distinctive type of interstitial cells. Our data also indicates that TCs may play a dual role in immune surveillance and immune homoeostasis to keep from immune disorder in acute and chronic pulmonary diseases. TCs also participated in proliferation, differentiation and regeneration. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Qing Kay Li and Dragos Cretoiu. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13062-015-0042-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Biology Direct 12/2015; 10(1). DOI:10.1186/s13062-015-0042-0 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a microglial surface receptor that triggers intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Recent genome-wide association studies have shown that a rare R47H mutation of TREM2 correlates with a substantial increase in the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). To address the basis for this genetic association, we studied TREM2 deficiency in the 5XFAD mouse model of AD. We found that TREM2 deficiency and haploinsufficiency augment β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation due to a dysfunctional response of microglia, which fail to cluster around Aβ plaques and become apoptotic. We further demonstrate that TREM2 senses a broad array of anionic and zwitterionic lipids known to associate with fibrillar Aβ in lipid membranes and to be exposed on the surface of damaged neurons. Remarkably, the R47H mutation impairs TREM2 detection of lipid ligands. Thus, TREM2 detects damage-associated lipid patterns associated with neurodegeneration, sustaining the microglial response to Aβ accumulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cell 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2015.01.049 · 33.12 Impact Factor


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