Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors: intracellular pattern recognition molecules for pathogen detection and host defense.

Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 10/2006; 177(6):3507-13. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.177.6.3507
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family of pattern recognition molecules is involved in a diverse array of processes required for host immune responses against invading pathogens. Unlike TLRs that mediate extracellular recognition of microbes, several NLRs sense pathogens in the cytosol and upon activation induce host defense signaling pathways. Although TLRs and NLRs differ in their mode of pathogen recognition and function, they share similar domains for microbial sensing and cooperate to elicit immune responses against the pathogen. Genetic variation in several NLR genes is associated with the development of inflammatory disorders or increased susceptibility to microbial infection. Further understanding of NLRs should provide critical insight into the mechanisms of host defense and the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases.

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