Bovine complex I is a complex of 45 different subunits.
ABSTRACT Mammalian mitochondrial complex I is a multisubunit membrane-bound assembly with a molecular mass approaching 1 MDa. By comprehensive analyses of the bovine complex and its constituent subcomplexes, 45 different subunits have been characterized previously. The presence of a 46th subunit was suspected from the consistent detection of a molecular mass of 10,566 by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of subunits fractionated by reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography. The component was found associated with both the intact complex and subcomplex Ibeta, which represents most of the membrane arm of the complex, and it could not be resolved chromatographically from subunit SGDH (the subunit of bovine complex I with the N-terminal sequence Ser-Gly-Asp-His). It has now been characterized by tandem mass spectrometry of intact protein ions and shown to be a C-terminal fragment of subunit SGDH arising from a specific peptide bond cleavage between Ile-55 and Pro-56 during the electrospray ionization process. Thus, the subunit composition of bovine complex I has been established. It is a complex of 45 different proteins plus non-covalently bound FMN and eight iron-sulfur clusters.
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ABSTRACT: The genome from Neurospora crassa presented three open reading frames homologous to the genes coding for human AIF and AMID proteins, which are flavoproteins with oxidoreductase activities implicated in caspase-independent apoptosis. To investigate the role of these proteins, namely within the mitochondrial respiratory chain, we studied their cellular localization and characterized the respective null mutant strains. Efficiency of the respiratory chain was analyzed by oxygen consumption studies and supramolecular organization of the OXPHOS system was assessed through BN-PAGE analysis in the respective null mutant strains. The results demonstrate that, unlike in mammalian systems, disruption of AIF in Neurospora does not affect either complex I assembly or function. Furthermore, the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes of the mutant strains display a similar supramolecular organization to that observed in the wild type strain. Further characterization revealed that N. crassa AIF appears localized to both the mitochondria and the cytoplasm, whereas AMID was found exclusively in the cytoplasm. AMID2 was detected in both mitochondria and cytoplasm of the amid mutant strain, but was barely discernible in wild type extracts, suggesting overlapping functions for the two proteins.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e34270. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Imp2 controls oxidative phosphorylation and is crucial for preserving glioblastoma cancer stem cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Growth of numerous cancer types is believed to be driven by a subpopulation of poorly differentiated cells, often referred to as cancer stem cells (CSCs), that have the capacity for self-renewal, tumor initiation, and generation of nontumorigenic progeny. Despite their potentially key role in tumor establishment and maintenance, the energy requirements of these cells and the mechanisms that regulate their energy production are unknown. Here, we show that the oncofetal insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IMP2, IGF2BP2) regulates oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in primary glioblastoma (GBM) sphere cultures (gliomaspheres), an established in vitro model for CSC expansion. We demonstrate that IMP2 binds several mRNAs that encode mitochondrial respiratory chain complex subunits and that it interacts with complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) proteins. Depletion of IMP2 in gliomaspheres decreases their oxygen consumption rate and both complex I and complex IV activity that results in impaired clonogenicity in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Importantly, inhibition of OXPHOS but not of glycolysis abolishes GBM cell clonogenicity. Our observations suggest that gliomaspheres depend on OXPHOS for their energy production and survival and that IMP2 expression provides a key mechanism to ensure OXPHOS maintenance by delivering respiratory chain subunit-encoding mRNAs to mitochondria and contributing to complex I and complex IV assembly.Genes & development 08/2012; 26(17):1926-44. · 12.08 Impact Factor
Article: Natural disease course and genotype-phenotype correlations in Complex I deficiency caused by nuclear gene defects: what we learned from 130 cases.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial complex I is the largest multi-protein enzyme complex of the oxidative phosphorylation system. Seven subunits of this complex are encoded by the mitochondrial and the remainder by the nuclear genome. We review the natural disease course and signs and symptoms of 130 patients (four new cases and 126 from literature) with mutations in nuclear genes encoding structural complex I proteins or those involved in its assembly. Complex I deficiency caused by a nuclear gene defect is usually a non-dysmorphic syndrome, characterized by severe multi-system organ involvement and a poor prognosis. Age at presentation may vary, but is generally within the first year of life. The most prevalent symptoms include hypotonia, nystagmus, respiratory abnormalities, pyramidal signs, dystonia, psychomotor retardation or regression, failure to thrive, and feeding problems. Characteristic symptoms include brainstem involvement, optic atrophy and Leigh syndrome on MRI, either or not in combination with internal organ involvement and lactic acidemia. Virtually all children ultimately develop Leigh syndrome or leukoencephalopathy. Twenty-five percent of the patients died before the age of six months, more than half before the age of two and 75 % before the age of ten years. Some patients showed recovery of certain skills or are still alive in their thirties . No clinical, biochemical, or genetic parameters indicating longer survival were found. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations were observed, however defects in some genes seem to be associated with a better or poorer prognosis, cardiomyopathy, Leigh syndrome or brainstem lesions.Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 05/2012; 35(5):737-47. · 3.58 Impact Factor