Comparison of treatment-response criteria for juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Department of Pediatric Rheumatology of the Children's National Medical Center, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20010, USA.
Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 5.85). 10/2006; 2(9):466-7. DOI: 10.1038/ncprheum0270
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to verify the usefulness of a simple disease activity index (SDAI) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The SDAI is the numerical sum of five outcome parameters: tender and swollen joint count (based on a 28-joint assessment), patient and physician global assessment of disease activity [visual analogue scale (VAS) 0-10 cm] and level of C-reactive protein (mg/dl, normal <1 mg/dl). Analysis initially focused on MN301, one of the three phase III clinical trials of leflunomide, in order to assess possible correlations between the SDAI and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS 28). Results were then compared with the other two trials, MN302 and US301. A total of 1839 patients were evaluated. At baseline, 6 and 12 months, the SDAI, DAS 28, American College of Rheumatology (ACR) response criteria and mean HAQ scores were determined for each patient and compared by linear regression for significant correlation. The SDAI was compared qualitatively to the ACR 20% at 3, 6 and 12 months. The index was further validated by comparing the SDAI with survey results obtained from rheumatologists' evaluations of disease activity in test cases. The survey results included defining categorical changes in the SDAI indicating major, minor or no improvement in disease activity in response to treatment. Changes in total Sharp score at 6 and 12 months of treatment were determined for each of these categories of the SDAI and for comparable categories of the DAS 28. The mean SDAI calculated for patients at baseline in study MN301 was 50.06 (range 25.10-96.10) and was, respectively, 50.55 (range 22.10-98.10) and 43.20 (range 12.90-78.20) in studies MN302 and US301. In all three trials, the SDAI was correlated with a high level of statistical significance to the DAS 28 and HAQ scores at baseline, endpoint and change at endpoint. Patients achieving the ACR 20, 50, 70 or 90% response showed proportionate changes in the SDAI. Analysis of surveyed physician responses showed a significant association between the perception of disease activity and the SDAI, as well as changes in the SDAI. Qualitative analysis of radiographic progression at 6 and 12 months for patients showing either major, minor or no improvement of the SDAI showed correspondingly larger increases of the total Sharp score at 12 months. The SDAI is a valid and sensitive assessment of disease activity and treatment response that is comparable with the DAS 28 and ACR response criteria; it is easy to calculate and therefore a viable tool for day-to-day clinical assessment of RA treatment. Overall results indicate that the SDAI has content, criterion and construct validity.
    Rheumatology 03/2003; 42(2):244-57. DOI:10.1093/rheumatology/keg072 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To begin the validation process of the preliminary criteria for inactive disease (ID), clinical remission on medication (CRM), and clinical remission off medication (CR) in children with select forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We used the OMERACT filter paradigm to estimate the validity of the criteria within each of the filter's 3 components: truth, discrimination, and feasibility, in 5 categories of JIA: systemic arthritis, persistent and extended oligoarthritis, and rheumatoid factor-positive and negative polyarthritis. Data sources for determining validity estimates included a Delphi questionnaire survey sent to 246 pediatric rheumatologists in 34 countries, a consensus conference attended by 20 senior pediatric rheumatologists representing 9 countries, a retrospective chart review of 437 patients with JIA from 3 tertiary care clinics who had been followed between 4 and 22 years, and the literature. Truth component: face and content validity. These aspects of validity were largely established via the Delphi questionnaire exercise and the consensus conference. Using an 80% consensus level, participants felt that a set of non-redundant variables could effectively differentiate the clinical states of ID, CRM, and CR. Criterion validity could not be irrefutably established because no gold standard for inactive disease exists for JIA. As an alternative, published investigations of remission in JIA were used to estimate concurrent and convergent validity, as surrogates for criterion validity and as indicators of overall construct validity. Correlational analyses revealed the new criteria to have good construct validity. Discrimination component: the criteria demonstrated moderate to high levels of classification, prognosis, and responsiveness (sensitivity to change) using data from the chart review. Patients who were able to attain CR remained disease-free for substantially longer periods than did those who attained only ID or CRM. Responsiveness was evidenced by the ability of the criteria to allow movement of most patients between the disease states, consistent with what is known of the course of the disease. Feasibility component: Results of the Delphi and consensus conference produced a set of criteria that are easily, quickly, and inexpensively completed in the physician's office, and present minimal or no risk to the patient. The preliminary criteria demonstrated moderate to excellent validity characteristics in some, but not all components of the OMERACT filter. Prospective validation studies are under way.
    The Journal of Rheumatology 05/2006; 33(4):789-95. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are no validated criteria to evaluate clinical response in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The purpose of this study was to compare 4 sets of criteria (2 from the American College of Rheumatology [ACR] and 2 from the European League Against Rheumatism [EULAR]) for clinical response evaluation in JIA patients treated with methotrexate and/or anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha drugs. Seventy-five patients with JIA were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months of therapy with second-line drugs. Mean age at study onset was 12.8 years (range 2-32.9 years). Diagnoses were systemic JIA (n = 16), rheumatoid factor-positive JIA (n = 5), rheumatoid factor-negative JIA (n = 9), persistent oligoarticular JIA (n = 10), extended oligoarticular JIA (n = 33), and psoriatic arthritis (n = 2). Clinical response was evaluated with the ACR Pediatric 30 criteria and the ACR 20% response criteria (ACR20), and with the EULAR Disease Activity Score (DAS) and 28-joint DAS (DAS28). Patients with EULAR criteria responses of "good" or "moderate" were classified as responders. Responders and nonresponders according to the different criteria were then compared. For patients younger than 16 years, Cohen's kappa varied between 0.51 and 0.72, with a good-to-excellent reproducibility index for all comparisons, except for the DAS28/ACR20 comparison. The best agreement was obtained by comparing the DAS and the ACR Pediatric 30. For patients older than 16 years, the reproducibility index was good or excellent in only 2 cases, i.e., comparing the DAS and the ACR Pediatric 30 and comparing the DAS and the DAS28 (as expected). Our study shows a good agreement overall for the different criteria tested. The highest concordance was observed between the DAS and the ACR Pediatric 30, the lowest between the DAS28 and the ACR20. Our data suggest that the ACR Pediatric 30 criteria can be used also in adult patients affected by JIA, and that the original DAS can be an alternative to the ACR Pediatric 30 in both children and young adults with JIA.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 05/2006; 54(5):1602-7. DOI:10.1002/art.21784 · 7.87 Impact Factor