Identification of yin-yang regulators and a phosphorylation consensus for male germ cell-associated kinase (MAK)-related kinase.
ABSTRACT MAK (male germ cell-associated protein kinase) and MRK/ICK (MAK-related kinase/intestinal cell kinase) are human homologs of Ime2p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of Mde3 and Pit1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and are similar to human cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). MAK and MRK require dual phosphorylation in a TDY motif catalyzed by an unidentified human threonine kinase and tyrosine autophosphorylation. Herein, we establish that human CDK-related kinase CCRK (cell cycle-related kinase) is an activating T157 kinase for MRK, whereas active CDK7/cyclin H/MAT1 complexes phosphorylate CDK2 but not MRK. Protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) interacts with MRK in a complex and dephosphorylates MRK at T157 in vitro and in situ. Thus, CCRK and PP5 are yin-yang regulators of T157 phosphorylation. To determine a substrate consensus, we screened a combinatorial peptide library with active MRK. MRK preferentially phosphorylates R-P-X-S/T-P sites, with the preference for arginine at position -3 (P-3) being more stringent than for prolines at P-2 and P+1. Using the consensus, we identified a putative phosphorylation site (RPLT(1080)S) for MRK in human Scythe, an antiapoptotic protein that interacts with MRK. MRK phosphorylates Scythe at T1080 in vitro as determined by site-directed mutagenesis and mass spectrometry, supporting the consensus and suggesting Scythe as a physiological substrate for MRK.
Article: CK2 controls multiple protein kinases by phosphorylating a kinase-targeting molecular chaperone, Cdc37.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cdc37 is a kinase-associated molecular chaperone whose function in concert with Hsp90 is essential for many signaling protein kinases. Here, we report that mammalian Cdc37 is a pivotal substrate of CK2 (casein kinase II). Purified Cdc37 was phosphorylated in vitro on a conserved serine residue, Ser13, by CK2. Moreover, Ser13 was the unique phosphorylation site of Cdc37 in vivo. Crucially, the CK2 phosphorylation of Cdc37 on Ser13 was essential for the optimal binding activity of Cdc37 toward various kinases examined, including Raf1, Akt, Aurora-B, Cdk4, Src, MOK, MAK, and MRK. In addition, nonphosphorylatable mutants of Cdc37 significantly suppressed the association of Hsp90 with protein kinases, while the Hsp90-binding activity of the mutants was unchanged. The treatment of cells with a specific CK2 inhibitor suppressed the phosphorylation of Cdc37 in vivo and reduced the levels of Cdc37 target kinases. These results unveil a regulatory mechanism of Cdc37, identify a novel molecular link between CK2 and many crucial protein kinases via Cdc37, and reveal the molecular basis for the ability of CK2 to regulate pleiotropic cellular functions.Molecular and Cellular Biology 06/2004; 24(9):4065-74. · 5.53 Impact Factor
Article: Structural basis for the catalytic activity of human serine/threonine protein phosphatase-5.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Serine/threonine protein phosphatase-5 (PP5) affects many signaling networks that regulate cell growth and cellular responses to stress. Here we report the crystal structure of the PP5 catalytic domain (PP5c) at a resolution of 1.6 A. From this structure we propose a mechanism for PP5-mediated hydrolysis of phosphoprotein substrates, which requires the precise positioning of two metal ions within a conserved Asp271-M1:M2-W1-His427-His304-Asp274 catalytic motif (where M1 and M2 are metals and W1 is a water molecule). The structure of PP5c provides a structural basis for explaining the exceptional catalytic proficiency of protein phosphatases, which are among the most powerful known catalysts. Resolution of the entire C terminus revealed a novel subdomain, and the structure of the PP5c should also aid development of type-specific inhibitors.Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2004; 279(32):33992-9. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: Identification of human male germ cell-associated kinase, a kinase transcriptionally activated by androgen in prostate cancer cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Androgen is involved in both normal development and malignant transformation of prostate cells. The signal transduction pathways associated with these processes are not well understood. Using a novel kinase display approach, we have identified a protein kinase, human male germ cell-associated kinase (hMAK), which is transcriptionally induced by the androgenic hormone 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The kinetics of induction is rapid and dose-dependent, and the induction is not blocked by cycloheximide treatment. Real time reverse transcription-PCR studies demonstrated a 9-fold induction of hMAK by 10 nm DHT at 24 h post-stimulation. The expression levels of hMAK in prostate cancer cell lines are in general higher than those of normal prostate epithelial cells. A reverse transcription-PCR product encompassing the entire hMAK open reading frame was isolated. The results from sequencing analysis showed that the hMAK protein is 623 amino acids in length and contains a kinase catalytic domain at its N terminus, followed by a proline/glutamine-rich domain. The catalytic domain of this kinase contains sequence motifs related to both the cyclin-dependent kinase and the mitogen-activated protein kinase families. When expressed in COS1 cells, hMAK is kinase-active as demonstrated by autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of exogenous substrate and is localized in the nucleus. A 3.7-kilobase pair promoter of the hMAK locus was isolated from a human genomic DNA bacterial artificial chromosome clone and was shown to be activated by DHT. This activation can be blocked by an anti-androgen drug bicalutamide (Casodex), implicating the involvement of androgen receptor in this process. Taken together, these data suggest that hMAK is a protein kinase targeted by androgen that may participate in androgen-mediated signaling in prostate cancer cells.Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2002; 277(38):35422-33. · 4.77 Impact Factor