Parents’ Ethnic-Racial Socialization Practices: A Review of Research and Directions for Future Study

Department of Psychology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA.
Developmental Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.21). 10/2006; 42(5):747-70. DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.42.5.747
Source: PubMed


Recently, there has been an emergence of literature on the mechanisms through which parents transmit information, values, and perspectives about ethnicity and race to their children, commonly referred to as racial or ethnic socialization. This literature has sought to document the nature of such socialization, its antecedents in parents' and children's characteristics and experiences, and its consequences for children's well-being and development. In this article, the authors integrate and synthesize what is known about racial and ethnic socialization on the basis of current empirical research, examining studies concerning its nature and frequency; its child, parent, and ecological predictors; and its consequences for children's development, including ethnic identity, self-esteem, coping with discrimination, academic achievement, and psychosocial well-being. The authors also discuss conceptual and methodological limitations of the literature and suggest directions for future research.

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    • "Although there is little empirical research on parents' national socialization and participation in national celebrations and commemorations, previous studies have shown that parents transmit group pride, knowledge and traditions to their children and that parents' ethnic, racial or cultural socialization among minority groups is positively associated with children's favourable in-group attitudes and in-group oriented behaviours (e.g. Demo and Hughes, 1990; Hughes et al., 2006; Lee and Quintana, 2005; O'Connor et al., 2000; Quintana et al., 1999; Stevenson, 1995; Thompson, 1994; Thompson et al., 2000; Uma~ na-Taylor and Fine, 2004). This literature has also shown that socialization of behaviours goes beyond copying behaviour and that socialization processes are affected and moderated by various interaction processes between parents and children. "
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    ABSTRACT: National celebrations and commemorations are believed to increase national cohesion. It is unknown however who participates in these activities. In this contribution, we address to what extent socialization by the parents and school, and integration into religious intermediary groups affect participation in national celebrations and commemorations. With the strong reference to the relevance of the nation in national days, we also hypothesize about the association between nationalist attitudes and national day participation. We chose the Netherlands as test case, with its institutionalized national days to remember war victims, to celebrate freedom and to celebrate the Monarchy. Relying on a national survey (LISS; N = 4559), our findings show that the transmission of parental behaviours is crucial for taking part in national celebrations and commemorative events. Schooling and integration in religious groups only affect specific forms of national celebrations and commemorations. In line with US based research on flagging the Stars and Stripes, we find that national day participation in this European country is affected by patriotic attitudes rather than by chauvinistic attitudes.
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    • "parents) and neglected the role of secondary socialising agents—such as teachers—and their ethnic socialisation practices . Previous research found that, as one of the dimensions of ethnic socialisation, parents promote the development of positive ethnic identity and ethnic pride (Hughes et al. 2006). Our study found however that teachers do exactly the opposite and help students to assimilate into the dominant culture of Belgian society. "
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    ABSTRACT: While considerable research has focused on the process and factors affecting acculturation, there is little research that investigates how members of minority and majority groups define acculturation in educational settings. Ethnographic research and qualitative interviews in three secondary schools in Flanders (Belgium) show that teachers and ethnic minority students have different ideas and expectancies regarding the concept ‘integration’, which appears to affect student–teacher relationship. Berry et al.’s [1989. “Acculturation Attitudes in Plural Societies.” Applied Psychology: An International Review 3 (2): 185-206. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.1989.tb01208.x.] acculturation orientations are used as a theoretical template to analyse teachers’ and ethnic minority students’ discourses about acculturation. Analyses reveal that students of immigrant descent perceive acculturation mainly in terms of the establishment of intergroup contact. In contrast, teachers find it harder to disconnect cultural maintenance from contact and participation. By suggesting some form of cultural adoption, teachers hope to socialise their ethnic minority students into the culture of the dominant ethnic group and prepare them for their future. These distinct interpretations of ‘integration’ in everyday life (which actually refers to acculturation) often leads to misunderstandings between ethnic minority students and their teachers, even to conflict, as many students feel that their cultural background is disparaged and not fully valued in school.
    Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 10/2015; DOI:10.1080/1369183X.2015.1103171 · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Egalitarian messages, on the other hand, may extend from a worldview that acknowledges ethnic–racial identity but downplays their significance. Silence about race is the overall avoidance of discussions about race and ethnicity (Hughes et al. 2006). In agreement with Hughes and colleagues, we proposed that these socialization practices also implicitly communicate values and reasoning about race and ethnicity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Research has sought to understand how parents socialize their children around race and ethnicity, but few studies have considered how contexts outside the home are also important sources of socialization. In this paper we review and integrate literature on practices in school settings that have implications for ethnic– racial socialization using a framework based on Hughes et al. (Dev Psychol 42(5):747–770, 2006) review of parental socialization. The practices reviewed include cultural socialization, preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, egali-tarianism, colorblindness, and silence. Our review shows a wide range of practices in education that may influence the development of ethnic–racial identity and ethnic–racial consciousness, but more research is needed to understand the role that schools play in developing African American youth's understanding of race and identity.
    The Urban Review 09/2015; 47(3):563. DOI:10.1007/s11256-014-0319-0
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