Identification of alkaline proteins that are differentially expressed in an overgrowth-mediated growth arrest and cell death of Escherichia coli by proteomic methodologies.
ABSTRACT The available Escherichia coli genome sequences offer an opportunity to further expand our understanding of this bacterium. In the current study, we present a rapid method for the isolation of bacterial alkaline proteins using acid incubation, purification and protein array by 2-DE, followed by protein identification using MS. Fifty-seven proteins were randomly chosen, in which 55 were identified by a database searching of MS data. The searching results showed that most of these alkaline proteins were involved in special functions within the cell, suggesting that alkaline proteome is an ideal fraction for an understanding of their special functions. Furthermore, alkaline proteomes were compared between the period of majority live bacteria (18-h culture), the period of similar amount of live and dead bacteria (30-h culture) and the period of majority dead bacteria (48-h culture). Six proteins were identified as differentially expressed targets, in which putative transcriptional regulator and superoxide dismutase genes were cloned and expressed for antiserum preparations. The antisera were applied for the confirmation of results obtained from 2-DE. The presented data clearly reveal that alkaline proteome analysis by 2-DE with MS plays an important role in the understanding of protein functions within the cell, and six alkaline proteins are determined as key ones in an overgrowth-mediated growth cycle of E. coli.
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ABSTRACT: We systematically analyzed the capability of the major cytosolic chaperones of Escherichia coli to cope with protein misfolding and aggregation during heat stress in vivo and in cell extracts. Under physiological heat stress conditions, only the DnaK system efficiently prevented the aggregation of thermolabile proteins, a surprisingly high number of 150-200 species, corresponding to 15-25% of detected proteins. Identification of thermolabile DnaK substrates by mass spectrometry revealed that they comprise 80% of the large (>/=90 kDa) but only 18% of the small (</=30 kDa) cytosolic proteins and include essential proteins. The DnaK system in addition acts with ClpB to form a bi-chaperone system that quantitatively solubilizes aggregates of most of these proteins. Efficient solubilization also occurred in an in vivo order-of-addition experiment in which aggregates were formed prior to induction of synthesis of the bi-chaperone system. Our data indicate that large-sized proteins are most vulnerable to thermal unfolding and aggregation, and that the DnaK system has central, dual protective roles for these proteins by preventing their aggregation and, cooperatively with ClpB, mediating their disaggregation. Keywords: chaperones/heat-shock response/Hsp70/protein denaturation/thermotoleranceThe EMBO Journal 01/2000; 18(24):6934-49. · 9.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sample prefractionation, as obtained via multicompartment electrolyzers with isoelectric membranes, greatly enhanced the load ability, resolution and detection sensitivity of two-dimensional (2-D) maps in proteome analysis. This was demonstrated with different samples. In an Escherichia coli total cell extract, analysis by a 2-D map run in a pH 4-5 gradient showed many more spots when prefractionated, as compared with standard maps available in databases such as SWISS-2DPAGE. Analysis of human plasma in the pH 3-6 range showed an increase in the number of highly acidic proteins in the fractionated sample compared to whole plasma. With both samples no protein precipitation or smears occurred and much larger sample amounts could be loaded upon prefractionation, so that a large number of spots could be visualized by Coomassie staining, which is fully compatible with subsequent matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis.Electrophoresis 12/2000; 21(17):3639-48. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The genomic sequence of Bacillus subtilis, which is the best studied Gram-positive bacterium, enabled us to obtain a theoretical two-dimensional (2-D) map, demonstrating that about one-third of this proteome has a theoretical alkaline isoelectric point (pI). This represents an important part of the entire proteome, which is not detectable in conventional 2-D gels (pH range 4-7). Sequence analysis revealed that 91% of the ribosomal proteins and a high amount of theoretical membrane proteins should be localized in the alkaline pH range requiring different protein extraction procedures. In order to find the pH range which gives the best resolution results for the alkaline proteins of B. subtilis, immobilized pH gradients (IPGs) with different pH ranges (pH 6-10, 6-11, 4-12, 9-12, and 3-10) were tested and optimized for IPG 4-12. Here we present a version of a first alkaline master 2-D gel for B. subtilis, which is a further complement of the already existing master gel (pH 4-7) in the Sub2D database. Almost 150 spots could be detected and 41 proteins have already been identified.Electrophoresis 12/2000; 21(17):3701-9. · 3.26 Impact Factor