ABSTRACT MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, nonprotein-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Although hundreds of human miRNA genes have been discovered, the functions of most of these are unknown. Computational predictions indicate that miRNAs, which account for at least 1% of human protein-coding genes, regulate protein production for thousands of or possibly all of human genes. We discuss the functions of mammalian miRNAs and the experimental and computational methods used to detect and predict human miRNA target genes. Anticipating their impact on genome-wide discovery of miRNA targets, we describe the various computational tools and web-based resources available to predict miRNA targets.