Prediction of human microRNA targets.
ABSTRACT MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, nonprotein-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Although hundreds of human miRNA genes have been discovered, the functions of most of these are unknown. Computational predictions indicate that miRNAs, which account for at least 1% of human protein-coding genes, regulate protein production for thousands of or possibly all of human genes. We discuss the functions of mammalian miRNAs and the experimental and computational methods used to detect and predict human miRNA target genes. Anticipating their impact on genome-wide discovery of miRNA targets, we describe the various computational tools and web-based resources available to predict miRNA targets.
- SourceAvailable from: Margareta Jernas[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: MicroRNA are small noncoding RNA molecules that are involved in the control of gene expression. To investigate the role of microRNA in multiple sclerosis (MS), we performed genome-wide expression analyses of mRNA and microRNA in T-cells from MS patients and controls. Heparin-anticoagulated peripheral blood was collected from MS-patients and healthy controls followed by isolation of T-cells. MicroRNA and RNA from T-cells was prepared and hybridized to Affymetrix miR 2.0 array and Affymetrix U133Plus 2.0 Human Genome array (Santa Clara, CA), respectively. Verifications were performed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We identified 2,452 differentially expressed genes and 21 differentially expressed microRNA between MS patients and controls. By Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, 20 of 21 differentially expressed microRNA were shown to affect the expression of their target genes, many of which were involved in the immune system. Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 14 (TNFSF14) was a microRNA target gene significantly decreased in MS. The differential expression of mir-494, mir-197 and the predicted microRNA target gene TNFSF14 was verified by real-time PCR and ELISA. These findings indicate that microRNA may be important regulatory molecules in T-cells in MS.BMC Immunology 07/2013; 14(1):32. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a complex metabolic disease with an etiology that includes genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors that lead to several different defects of glucose homeostasis, primarily in the pancreatic β-cells, liver, muscle, and adipose tissues. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as important regulators in post-transcriptional gene expression. Although the target genes and biological functions of individual miRNAs remain largely unknown, previous studies have shown them to be important regulators of diverse biological processes, in both normal and pathological states. In the past decade, an increasing number of studies have focused on the regulatory roles of miRNAs in metabolism; thus, miRNAs play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. This review summarizes recent findings related to the roles of miRNAs in diabetes. The information presented herein might be useful for the future development of miRNAs as diagnostic and therapeutic targets in diabetes.Archives of Pharmacal Research 01/2013; · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs have emerged as key players of gene regulation during development and disease states like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a vascular disease characterized by pulmonary resistance vessel occlusion is not spared by microRNA implication. This is not surprising since PAH shares common aberrantly activated pathways with cancers that lead to proliferation and survival of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells, among others, within the artery wall and narrowing the lumen. Recent studies demonstrated the role of miR-204 and miR-206 in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation. Other microRNAs, such as miR-145, miR-21 and the miR17/92 cluster, have been associated with the disrupted BMPR2 pathway. During the last couple of years, the number of studies on the role of microRNA in PAH has broadened, defining it clearly as a HOT TOPIC. This current review presents an overview of the most recent knowledge as well as future possibilities. The use of microRNA therapies is still uncertain and poorly applied in the clinical setting yet. It is still critical to increase the knowledge and the translational potential of this HOT TOPIC to make it become a HOPE TOPIC.Current Vascular Pharmacology 05/2013; · 2.82 Impact Factor