Proteolytic Cleavage and Nuclear Translocation of Fibrocystin Is Regulated by Intracellular Ca2+ and Activation of Protein Kinase C
ABSTRACT Fibrocystin, a type I membrane protein of unknown function, is the protein affected in the autosomal recessive form of polycystic kidney disease. Here we show that fibrocystin undergoes regulated proteolysis. Several proteolytic cleavages occur within the predicted ectodomain, whereas at least one cleavage occurs within the cytoplasmic portion. The latter generates a C-terminal intracellular fragment that harbors the nuclear localization signal KRKVSRLAVTGERTATPAPKIPRIT and translocates to the nucleus. Proteolytic cleavage of fibrocystin occurs constitutively in long term cultures of polarized inner medullary collecting duct cells (mIMCD-3). Activation of protein kinase C and release of intracellular Ca2+ are required for proteolysis under these conditions. In short term cultures of human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK-293), proteolytic cleavage of fibrocystin can be elicited by stimulation of intracellular Ca2+ release or activation of protein kinase C. These results identify a novel Ca2+-dependent pathway that signals from fibrocystin located in the cell membrane to the nucleus.
- SourceAvailable from: Gang Yao
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- "In addition to the expected upper higher molecular weight one, the lower molecular weight band had an identical migration pattern to that in hICD-transfected cells (Figure 1A). This result is consistent with the finding that hICD can be cleaved from full-length FPC ,  and the size of the cleaved C-tail is similar to that of hICD. In order to study the function of the cleaved fragment, we established four mIMCD-3 cell lines stably expressing hICD (Figure 1B, C). "
ABSTRACT: FPC (fibrocystin or polyductin) is a single transmembrane receptor-like protein, responsible for the human autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). It was recently proposed that FPC undergoes a Notch-like cleavage and subsequently the cleaved carboxy(C)-terminal fragment translocates to the nucleus. To study the functions of the isolated C-tail, we expressed the intracellular domain of human FPC (hICD) in renal epithelial cells. By 3-dimensional (3D) tubulogenesis assay, we found that in contrast to tubule-like structures formed from control cells, hICD-expressing cells exclusively formed cyst-like structures. By western blotting, we showed that the Akt/mTOR pathway, indicated by increased phosphorylation of Akt at serine 473 and S6 kinase 1 at threonine 389, was constitutively activated in hICD-expressing cells, similar to that in FPC knockdown cells and ARPKD kidneys. Moreover, application of mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reduced the size of the cyst-like structures formed by hICD-expressing cells. Application of either LY294002 or wortmannin inhibited the activation of both S6K1 and Akt. Expression of full-length FPC inhibited the activation of S6 and S6 kinase whereas co-expression of hICD with full-length FPC antagonized the inhibitory effect of full-length FPC on mTOR. Taken together, we propose that FPC modulates the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and the cleaved C-tail regulates the function of the full-length protein.PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e95630. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095630 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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- "Incubation of ZR-75 mammary tumor cells with heregulin induced the translocation of γ-catenin and MUC1-C (but not MUC1-N) to the nucleolus . These results suggest that MUC1-C may belong to an increasing group of plasma membrane proteins that can be translocated to the nucleus after proteolytic cleavage or subunit dissociation at the plasma membrane , , . "
ABSTRACT: MUC1 is a large transmembrane glycoprotein and oncogene expressed by epithelial cells and overexpressed and underglycosylated in cancer cells. The MUC1 cytoplasmic subunit (MUC1-C) can translocate to the nucleus and regulate gene expression. It is frequently assumed that the MUC1 extracellular subunit (MUC1-N) does not enter the nucleus. Based on an unexpected observation that MUC1 extracellular domain antibody produced an apparently nucleus-associated staining pattern in trophoblasts, we have tested the hypothesis that MUC1-N is expressed inside the nucleus. Three different antibodies were used to identify MUC1-N in normal epithelial cells and tissues as well as in several cancer cell lines. The results of immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy analyses as well as subcellular fractionation, Western blotting, and siRNA/shRNA studies, confirm that MUC1-N is found within nuclei of all cell types examined. More detailed examination of its intranuclear distribution using a proximity ligation assay, subcellular fractionation, and immunoprecipitation suggests that MUC1-N is located in nuclear speckles (interchromatin granule clusters) and closely associates with the spliceosome protein U2AF65. Nuclear localization of MUC1-N was abolished when cells were treated with RNase A and nuclear localization was altered when cells were incubated with the transcription inhibitor 5,6-dichloro-1-b-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB). While MUC1-N predominantly associated with speckles, MUC1-C was present in the nuclear matrix, nucleoli, and the nuclear periphery. In some nuclei, confocal microscopic analysis suggest that MUC1-C staining is located close to, but only partially overlaps, MUC1-N in speckles. However, only MUC1-N was found in isolated speckles by Western blotting. Also, MUC1-C and MUC1-N distributed differently during mitosis. These results suggest that MUC1-N translocates to the nucleus where it is expressed in nuclear speckles and that MUC1-N and MUC1-C have dissimilar intranuclear distribution patterns.PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e42712. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0042712 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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- "In contrast to recombinant fibrocystin that is post-translationally processed into multiple peptide fragments (Hiesberger et al., 2006; Kaimori et al., 2007), the bulk of the endogenous mouse protein is cleaved once in both cell lines (Figure 1D). Based on size and reactivity with two newly developed fibrocystin antibodies, the endogenous protein is apparently digested at an extracellular domain site previously identified in the recombinant protein (Figure 1C and D) (Hiesberger et al., 2006). The Oak Ridge Polycystic Kidney (ORPK) mouse model of ARPKD involves an intraflagellar transport protein necessary for ciliogenesis (Yoder et al., 2002). "
ABSTRACT: Chloride secretion by airway epithelial cells is defective in cystic fibrosis (CF). The conventional paradigm is that CFTR is activated through cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA), whereas the Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel (CaCC) is activated by Ca(2+) agonists like UTP. We found that most chloride current elicited by Ca(2+) agonists in primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells is mediated by CFTR by a mechanism involving Ca(2+) activation of adenylyl cyclase I (AC1) and cAMP/PKA signaling. Use of selective inhibitors showed that Ca(2+) agonists produced more chloride secretion from CFTR than from CaCC. CFTR-dependent chloride secretion was reduced by PKA inhibition and was absent in CF cell cultures. Ca(2+) agonists produced cAMP elevation, which was blocked by adenylyl cyclase inhibition. AC1, a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase, colocalized with CFTR in the cell apical membrane. RNAi knockdown of AC1 selectively reduced UTP-induced cAMP elevation and chloride secretion. These results, together with correlations between cAMP and chloride current, suggest that compartmentalized AC1-CFTR association is responsible for Ca(2+)/cAMP cross-talk. We further conclude that CFTR is the principal chloride secretory pathway in non-CF airways for both cAMP and Ca(2+) agonists, providing a novel mechanism to link CFTR dysfunction to CF lung disease.Molecular biology of the cell 08/2010; 21(15):2639-48. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E09-12-1004 · 5.98 Impact Factor