Family-based association study of TPH1 and TPH2 polymorphisms in autism
ABSTRACT The TPH1 and TPH2 genes encode the rate-limiting enzymes that control serotonin biosynthesis, and serotonin is clearly altered in autism. In the current study, eight SNPs in the TPH1 gene region and eight SNPs within the TPH2 gene were examined by family-based association tests in a large cohort of 352 families with autism and in clinically defined subsets of these families with either severe obsessive-compulsive behaviors (sOCB) or self-stimulatory behaviors (SSB). We found no evidence for association between autism and single SNPs or haplotypes of the TPH1 and TPH2 genes in the cohort of all families or in the sOCB and SSB subsets. In particular, we failed to replicate the association between autism and variants of the TPH2 gene, rs4341581 (TRANSMIT P = 1; PDT P = 0.323; FBAT P = 0.446) and rs11179000 (TRANSMIT P = 0.174; PDT P = 0.293; FBAT P = 0.374). Furthermore, no evidence for linkage was observed between autism and SNPs in the TPH1 and TPH2 genes (although linkage at the TPH2 locus was observed in the SSB subset). Thus, it appears unlikely that the TPH1 and TPH2 genes play a significant role in the susceptibility to autism or to autism endophenotypes including sOCB and SSB.
SourceAvailable from: Valentina Mosienko[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a key modulatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) that plays an important role as a developmental signal. Several lines of evidence associate altered 5-HT signaling with psychopathology in humans, particularly neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). ASD are characterized by persistent social and communication deficits along with stereotyped and repetitive patterns of behavior, with all symptoms emerging early during development. Here, we employed a mouse model devoid of brain 5-HT due to the lack of the gene encoding tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2), the initial and rate-limiting enzyme of 5-HT synthesis in the CNS. Tph2 null mutant (Tph2 (-/-) ) mice show normal prenatal development; however, they display for yet unknown reasons severe growth retardation during the first postnatal weeks. We investigated, therefore, whether Tph2 (-/-) mice display deficits in isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) as pups during early life. Isolation-induced USV are the most commonly studied behavioral measure to assess developmental delays and communication deficits in rodent models for ASD, particularly as they serve an important communicative function in coordinating mother-pup interactions. Tph2 (-/-) mouse pups displayed a clear deficit in the emission of isolation-induced USV, as compared to heterozygous and wildtype littermates, exactly during growth retardation onset, including reduced call numbers and deficits in call clustering and temporal organization. The ultrasonic communication impairment displayed by Tph2 (-/-) mouse pups is likely to result in a deficient mother-infant interaction, presumably contributing to their growth retardation phenotype, and represents a prominent feature relevant to ASD.Molecular Autism 03/2015; 6(13). DOI:10.1186/s13229-015-0003-6 · 5.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reciprocal social interaction, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. A very large number of genes have been linked to autism, many of which encode proteins involved in the development and function of synaptic circuitry. However, the manner in which these mutated genes might participate, either individually or together, to cause autism is not understood. One factor known to exert extremely broad influence on brain development and network formation, and which has been linked to autism, is the neurotransmitter serotonin. Unfortunately, very little is known about how alterations in serotonin neuronal function might contribute to autism. To test the hypothesis that serotonin dysfunction can contribute to the core symptoms of autism, we analyzed mice lacking brain serotonin (via a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2)) for behaviors that are relevant to this disorder. Mice lacking brain serotonin (TPH2-/-) showed substantial deficits in numerous validated tests of social interaction and communication. These mice also display highly repetitive and compulsive behaviors. Newborn TPH2-/- mutant mice show delays in the expression of key developmental milestones and their diminished preference for maternal scents over the scent of an unrelated female is a forerunner of more severe socialization deficits that emerge in weanlings and persist into adulthood. Taken together, these results indicate that a hypo-serotonin condition can lead to behavioral traits that are highly characteristic of autism. Our findings should stimulate new studies that focus on determining how brain hyposerotonemia during critical neurodevelopmental periods can alter the maturation of synaptic circuits known to be mis-wired in autism and how prevention of such deficits might prevent this disorder.PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(11):e48975. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0048975 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Serotoninergic dysfunction leads to neurodevelopmental abnormalities and behavioral impairments. Platelet hyperserotoninemia is reported as the best identified endophenotype for autism spectrum disorders. Therefore, in the present study we investigate association of TPH2, the rate limiting enzyme in 5-HT biosynthesis and ITGB3, a serotonin quantitative trait locus with ASD in the Indian population. METHODS: Population and family-based genetic association and gene-gene interaction analyses were performed to evaluate the role of ITGB3 and TPH2 markers in ASD etiology. RESULTS: Association tests using ITGB3 markers revealed significant paternal overtransmission of T allele of rs5918 to male probands. Interestingly for TPH2, we observed significant overrepresentation of A-A (rs11179000-rs4290270), G-A (rs4570625-rs4290270), G-G-A (rs4570625-rs11179001-rs4290270) and A-G-A (rs11179000-rs11179001-rs4290270) haplotypes in the controls and maternal preferential transmission of A-A (rs11179001-rs7305115), T-A-A (rs4570625-rs11179001-rs7305115) and T-A-A (rs11179000-rs11179001-rs7305115) and nontransmission of G-G-A (rs4570625-rs11179001-rs7305115) haplotypes to the affected offspring. Moreover, interaction of ITGB3 marker, rs15908 with TPH2 markers was found to be significant and influenced by the sex of the probands. Predicted individual risk, which varied from very mild to moderate, supports combined effect of these markers in ASD. CONCLUSION: Overall results of the present study indicate likely involvement of ITGB3 and TPH2 in the pathophysiology of ASD in the Indian population.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 04/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2013.04.015 · 4.03 Impact Factor