Family-based association study of TPH1 and TPH2 polymorphisms in autism.
ABSTRACT The TPH1 and TPH2 genes encode the rate-limiting enzymes that control serotonin biosynthesis, and serotonin is clearly altered in autism. In the current study, eight SNPs in the TPH1 gene region and eight SNPs within the TPH2 gene were examined by family-based association tests in a large cohort of 352 families with autism and in clinically defined subsets of these families with either severe obsessive-compulsive behaviors (sOCB) or self-stimulatory behaviors (SSB). We found no evidence for association between autism and single SNPs or haplotypes of the TPH1 and TPH2 genes in the cohort of all families or in the sOCB and SSB subsets. In particular, we failed to replicate the association between autism and variants of the TPH2 gene, rs4341581 (TRANSMIT P = 1; PDT P = 0.323; FBAT P = 0.446) and rs11179000 (TRANSMIT P = 0.174; PDT P = 0.293; FBAT P = 0.374). Furthermore, no evidence for linkage was observed between autism and SNPs in the TPH1 and TPH2 genes (although linkage at the TPH2 locus was observed in the SSB subset). Thus, it appears unlikely that the TPH1 and TPH2 genes play a significant role in the susceptibility to autism or to autism endophenotypes including sOCB and SSB.
- SourceAvailable from: Janice SowinskiThe American Journal of Human Genetics 09/2001; 69(2):463-6. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper was commissioned by the committee on the Effectiveness of Early Education in Autism of the National Research Council (NRC). It provides a review of epidemiological studies of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) which updates a previously published article (The epidemiology of autism: a review. Psychological Medicine 1999; 29: 769-786). The design, sample characteristics of 32 surveys published between 1966 and 2001 are described. Recent surveys suggest that the rate for all forms of PDDs are around 30/10,000 but more recent surveys suggest that the estimate might be as high as 60/10,000. The rate for Asperger disorder is not well established, and a conservative figure is 2.5/10,000. Childhood disintegrative disorder is extremely rare with a pooled estimate across studies of 0.2/10,000. A detailed discussion of the possible interpretations of trends over time in prevalence rates is provided. There is evidence that changes in case definition and improved awareness explain much of the upward trend of rates in recent decades. However, available epidemiological surveys do not provide an adequate test of the hypothesis of a changing incidence of PDDs.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 09/2003; 33(4):365-82. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have emerged as a major therapeutic advance in psychopharmacology. As a result, the discovery of these agents marks a milestone in neuropsychopharmacology and rational drug design, and has launched a new era in psychotropic drug development. Prior to the SSRIs, all psychotropic medications were the result of chance observation. In an attempt to develop a SSRI, researchers discovered a number of nontricyclic agents with amine-uptake inhibitory properties, acting on both noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons with considerable differences in potency. A given drug may affect one or more sites over its clinically relevant dosing range and may produce multiple and different clinical effects. The enhanced safety profile includes a reduced likelihood of pharmacodynamically mediated adverse drug-drug interactions by avoiding affects on sites that are not essential to the intended outcome. SSRIs were developed for inhibition of the neuronal uptake pump for serotonin (5-HT), a property shared with the TCAs, but without affecting the other various neuroreceptors or fast sodium channels. The therapeutic mechanism of action of SSRIs involves alteration in the 5-HT system. The plethora of biological substrates, receptors and pathways for 5-HT are candidates to mediate not only the therapeutic actions of SSRIs, but also their side effects. A hypothesis to explain these immediate side effects is that 5-HT is increased at specific 5-HT receptor subtypes in discrete regions of the body where the relevant physiologic processes are regulated. Marked differences exist between the SSRIs with regard to effects on specific cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, and thus the likelihood of clinically important pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions. Although no clear relationship exists between the clinical efficacy, plasma concentration of SSRIs, nor any threshold that defines toxic concentrations, but therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may be useful in special populations, such as in elderly patients, poor metabolizers (PM) of sparteine (CYP2D6) or mephenytoin (CYP2C19), and patients with liver and kidney impairment. Several meta-analyses have reviewed the comparative efficacy of TCAs and SSRIs, and concluded that both TCAs and SSRIs have similar efficacy in the treatment of depression. SSRIs have demonstrated better efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). They have also been found to be effective in the treatment for social anxiety disorder both in reducing total levels of social anxiety and in improving overall clinical condition. The benefit of SSRIs in anorexia nervosa (AN) is apparently short-term unless medication is given in the context of nutritional or behavioral therapy. No single antidepressant can ever be recommended for every patient, but in a vast majority of patients, SSRIs should be considered as one of the first-line drugs in the treatment of depression.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 03/2003; 27(1):85-102. · 3.55 Impact Factor