Effect of pinealectomy and. melatonin replacement on morphological and biochemical recovery after traumatic brain injury

Department of Biochemistry, Inonu University, Malatia, Malatya, Turkey
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 2.58). 11/2006; 24(6):357-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2006.08.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Numerous studies showed that melatonin, a free radical scavenger, is neuroprotective. In this study, we investigated the effect of pinealectomy and administration of exogenous melatonin on oxidative stress and morphological changes after experimental brain injury. The animals were divided into six groups, each having 12 rats. Group 1 underwent craniotomy alone. Group 2 underwent craniotomy followed by brain trauma and received no medication. Group 3 underwent craniotomy followed by brain trauma and received melatonin. Group 4 underwent pinealectomy and craniotomy alone. Group 5 underwent pinealectomy and craniotomy followed by brain injury and received no medication. Group 6 underwent pinealectomy and craniotomy followed by brain trauma and received melatonin. Melatonin (100 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally immediately after trauma to the rats in Groups 3 and 6. Pinealectomy caused a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH), and xanthine oxidase (XO) levels, and a decrease in GSH levels as compared to the control group. Trauma to pinealectomized rats causes significantly higher oxidative stress. Exogeneous melatonin administration significantly reduced MDA, XO and NO levels, increased GSH levels, and attenuated tissue lesion area. These findings suggest that reduction in endogenous melatonin after pinealectomy makes the rats more vulnerable to trauma, and exogenous melatonin administration has an important neuroprotective effect.

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    • "Therefore, further preclinical and clinical studies are needed to clarify Endogenous CSF melatonin increases after TBI MA Seifman et al the precise nature of any potential relationships between melatonin and oxidative stress and/or inflammation. Provided these beneficial roles of melatonin were further validated in animal models of TBI and in concert with existing data that show such an effect (Ates et al, 2006), a future direction in the study of melatonin post-TBI could include clinical administration of melatonin to these patients. "
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays a significant role in secondary damage after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI); and melatonin exhibits both direct and indirect antioxidant effects. Melatonin deficiency is deleterious in TBI animal models, and its administration confers neuroprotection, reducing cerebral oedema, and improving neurobehavioural outcome. This study aimed to measure the endogenous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum melatonin levels post-TBI in humans and to identify relationships with markers of oxidative stress via 8-isoprostaglandin-F2alpha (isoprostane), brain metabolism and neurologic outcome. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples of 39 TBI patients were assessed for melatonin, isoprostane, and various metabolites. Cerebrospinal fluid but not serum melatonin levels were markedly elevated (7.28+/-0.92 versus 1.47+/-0.35 pg/mL, P<0.0005). Isoprostane levels also increased in both CSF (127.62+/-16.85 versus 18.28+/-4.88 pg/mL, P<0.0005) and serum (562.46+/-50.78 versus 126.15+/-40.08 pg/mL (P<0.0005). A strong correlation between CSF melatonin and CSF isoprostane on day 1 after injury (r=0.563, P=0.002) suggests that melatonin production increases in conjunction with lipid peroxidation in TBI. Relationships between CSF melatonin and pyruvate (r=0.369, P=0.049) and glutamate (r=0.373, P=0.046) indicate that melatonin production increases with metabolic disarray. In conclusion, endogenous CSF melatonin levels increase after TBI, whereas serum levels do not. This elevation is likely to represent a response to oxidative stress and metabolic disarray, although further studies are required to elucidate these relationships.
    Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 04/2008; 28(4):684-96. DOI:10.1038/sj.jcbfm.9600603 · 5.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: So far, several treatment modalities have been attempted to brain protection in cases such as brain trauma, stroke or brain hemorrhage. However, a treatment method that the effect begins immediately and definitely helpful has not been discovered yet. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of propofol and erythropoietin (Epo) on brain injury caused by oxidative stress and antioxidant properties of these agents after closed head injury (CHI) in rats. For this study, female Wistar Albino rats were divided into five groups: non-traumatic control group, trauma performed group CHI, trauma with propofol (100 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.), trauma with Epo (5000 U/kg) i.p. and trauma with propofol and Epo performed study groups. Twenty-four hours after CHI, rats were sacrificed and the brains were removed. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), xanthine oxidase (XO), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in brain tissue. MDA and NO levels were decreased significantly in Groups Epo, Propofol and Epo+Propofol than Group CHI (p<0.01). XO activity was significantly lower in Group Epo than Group CHI (p<0.05). Epo and propofol decreased oxidative stress by decreasing MDA and NO level in brain tissue after CHI. However, combination of Epo and propofol has no significant beneficial advantage than Epo or propofol alone.
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 02/2008; 32(1):81-6. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2007.07.016 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants has been postulated to lead to oxidative damage in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Oxidative neurodegeneration is a key mediator of exacerbated morphological responses and deficits in behavioral recoveries. The present study was designed to delineate the early temporal sequence of this imbalance in order to enhance possible antioxidant therapy. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a unilateral moderate cortical contusion. At various times post-trauma (3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h), animals were killed and the cortex analyzed for enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidative stress markers. Fresh tissues were prepared for biochemical analysis of several antioxidants (glutathione [GSH], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], glutathione reductase [GR], glutathione-S-transferase [GST], and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS]). Synaptic markers Synapsin-I, PSD-95, SAP-97 and GAP-43 were analyzed by Western blot with antibodies directed against them. All activity levels were compared to sham-operated animals. Activity of antioxidant enzymes and GSH clearly demonstrate a significant time-dependent increase in oxidative stress. Changes in pre- and post-synaptic proteins (Synapsin-I and PSD-95) occur early (24 h), whereas SAP-97 levels demonstrate a protracted reduction. These results indicate that depletion of antioxidant systems following trauma could adversely affect synaptic function and plasticity. Because of the observed differences in the time-course of various markers, it may be necessary to stagger selective types of anti-oxidant therapy to target specific oxidative components. The initial therapeutic window following TBI appears relatively short since oxidative damage occurs as early as 3 h.
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