Testing the dual pathway hypothesis to substance use in adolescence and young adulthood.
ABSTRACT We tested the dual pathway hypothesis to substance use which posits that substance use can develop via internalizing symptoms or deviant behaviors.
Using data from the Add Health study, we used latent class analysis to define subgroups based on patterns of substance use, and logistic regression procedures to evaluate the prospective association between symptoms of depression, deviance, and the individual substance use patterns.
Groups representing similar patterns of substance use were identified in both adolescence and young adulthood. Some support for the dual pathway hypothesis was demonstrated. Deviance was prospectively associated with substance group assignment in both adolescence and young adulthood, while depression uniquely predicted assignment to the smoking group in young adulthood among females.
Further testing of the dual pathway hypothesis should be built on diverse pattern-centered approaches able to explore the presence of population subgroups.
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ABSTRACT: To date studies have not explored patterns of substance use exclusively among youth in the child welfare system. Consequently, little is known about polysubstance use among child welfare-involved youth. This study aimed to explore whether physical abuse, parental substance use, depression, and demographic characteristics predict distinct patterns of substance use among child welfare-involved youth using latent class analysis (LCA). The sample included 822 11–17 year olds who participated in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW II) study between March 2008 and September 2009. We found the following three classes: (1) polysubstance use, (2) alcohol and marijuana use, and (3) low use. Older youth and youth who experienced physical abuse were at greater risk of being in the polysubstance use class, while living with a biological parent reduced the likelihood of polysubstance use class membership. Youth in the alcohol and marijuana use class were more likely to be older and depressed. Results from this study illuminate important targets for interventions.Substance Use & Misuse 10/2014; DOI:10.3109/10826084.2014.966845 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: The study objective was to use latent class analyses (LCAs) to identify gender- and racial/ethnic-specific groups of adolescent alcohol users and associations between alcohol use group and adolescent and adulthood illicit drug use in a nationally-representative US sample. Methods: We used Wave I (1994–1995, adolescence) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to conduct LCAs by gender and race/ethnicity and measure associations between class membership and Wave I and Wave III (2001–2002, young adulthood) drug use. Participants included white (n = 9548), African American (n = 4005) and Hispanic (n = 3184) participants. LCAs were based on quantity and frequency of adolescent alcohol use; physiological and social consequences of use; and peer use. Results: Males and females were characterized by different alcohol use typologies and consequences. Males in the highest severity class (i.e. drank both heavily and frequently) experienced disproportionate risk of alcohol-related consequences compared with abstainers and other alcohol-using groups. Females who drank heavily when drinking even if only occasionally, experienced high risk of alcohol-related consequences. Substantial proportions of males reported diverse alcohol-related problems, whereas females most commonly reported alcohol-related problems with dating and sexual experiences. Though levels of alcohol use and report of problems associated with use were higher among white versus minority populations, other racial/ethnic differences in patterns of alcohol use were minimal. Classification in any drinking class was a strong risk factor for adolescent and adulthood illicit drug use, with heavy drinkers at greatest risk of drug use. Conclusions: Gender-specific adolescent alcohol and substance use prevention programs are warranted.The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 05/2014; 40(3). DOI:10.3109/00952990.2014.892950 · 1.47 Impact Factor