To estimate the lifetime prevalence and projected lifetime risk at age 75 years of DSM-IV disorders in New Zealand.
A nationwide face-to-face household survey carried out in 2003-2004. A fully structured diagnostic interview, the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0), was used. There were 12,992 completed interviews from participants aged 16 years and over. The overall response rate was 73.3%. In this paper, the outcomes reported are lifetime prevalence and projected lifetime risk at age 75 years.
The lifetime prevalence of any disorder was 39.5%. The lifetime prevalences for disorder groups were: anxiety disorders, 24.9%; mood disorders, 20.2%; substance use disorders, 12.3%; and eating disorders, 1.7%. The prevalences for all disorders were higher in the younger age groups. Females had higher prevalences of anxiety, mood and eating disorders compared with males; males had higher prevalences of substance use disorders. The estimated projected lifetime risk of any disorder at age 75 years was 46.6% with the median age of onset being 18 years. Adjustment for age, sex, education and household income did not remove all differences between Māori and the composite other ethnic group in the risk of disorder (hazard ratio = 1.1-1.4). After adjustment, hazard ratios for Pacific people ranged from 0.8 to 2.5.
These results confirm those of other studies: mental disorders are relatively common and tend to have early onset. Females are more likely to experience anxiety, mood and eating disorders than males, who experience more substance use disorders. Adjustment for socioeconomic factors and demography does not explain all ethnic differences, although remaining differences are small relative to cohort and even sex differences.
"The tailored standard MHFA (Kitchener et al. 2013a) course (for adults providing MHFA to adults) includes some aspects of the Youth MHFA (Kelly et al. 2013) course (for adults providing MHFA to adolescents), specifically a section on eating disorders. This was done because many nursing and medical students are in the 16–24 age range, which is a typical age for onset of eating disorders (Oakley Browne et al. 2006). In addition, supplementary booklets and new videos, with examples of how to provide mental health first aid to fellow students, were developed (Bovopoulos et al. 2013; Kitchener et al. 2013b). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role and demands of studying nursing and medicine involve specific stressors that may contribute to an increased risk for mental health problems. Stigma is a barrier to help-seeking for mental health problems in nursing and medical students, making these students vulnerable to negative outcomes including higher failure rates and discontinuation of study. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) is a potential intervention to increase the likelihood that medical and nursing students will support their peers to seek help for mental health problems. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a tailored MHFA course for nursing and medical students.
Nursing and medical students self-selected into either a face-to-face or online tailored MHFA course. Four hundred and thirty-four nursing and medical students completed pre- and post-course surveys measuring mental health first aid intentions, mental health literacy, confidence in providing help, stigmatising attitudes and satisfaction with the course.
The results of the study showed that both the online and face-to-face courses improved the quality of first aid intentions towards a person experiencing depression, and increased mental health literacy and confidence in providing help. The training also decreased stigmatizing attitudes and desire for social distance from a person with depression.
Both online and face-to-face tailored MHFA courses have the potential to improve outcomes for students with mental health problems, and may benefit the students in their future professional careers.
"The lifetime risk for a major depressive illness in New Zealand has been estimated to be approximately 25%, with a median age of onset occurring in the early 1930s. It is expected that one in four adults will experience an episode of major depression in his or her lifetime . Alongside psychosocial therapy, antidepressant medicines form the mainstay of treatment, with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) usually being the first choice of antidepressants. "
Value in Health 07/2015; 18(5):646-54. DOI:10.1016/j.jval.2015.02.020 · 3.28 Impact Factor
"The majority of the participants play or have played an instrument at some point in their life (76.7%). Of the sample, 10.6% reported having been previously diagnosed with depression, 6.6% with anxiety, and 14.4% with both, which is consistent with statistics for this population (Oakley Browne et al., 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate how music-related mood regulation relates to psychopathology – specifically depression, anxiety, and stress – in young people, through examining the nature of the relationships between individual music-related mood regulation strategies and psychopathology. The sample consisted of 146 (53 male and 93 female) university students aged between 17 and 24 years. Participants completed an online questionnaire addressing levels of psychopathology, music-related mood regulation behaviours, and personal music-related information. Results indicated that, as a whole, music-related mood regulation predicted levels of psychopathology. High use of the mood regulation strategy Discharge (venting of negative emotion through music) predicted high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress; Diversion (distraction from worries and stress) predicted high levels of anxiety and stress; and Entertainment (happy mood maintenance and enhancement) predicted low levels of depression. The results suggest that music-related mood regulation may perform a maladaptive function in certain individuals that promotes psychopathology; however, it is equally plausible that young people experiencing psychopathology are more likely to employ music in an attempt to reduce their symptoms. These are avenues for consideration in future research. The present study has practical implications for the use of music as a self-therapeutic resource and in the treatment of young people with psychopathology in music therapy settings.
Musicae Scientiae 06/2014; 18(2):150-165. DOI:10.1177/1029864914521422 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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