Inflammatory lung secretions inhibit dendritic cell maturation and function via neutrophil elastase.
ABSTRACT Continuous episodes of infection are a feature of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF). Lung antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) sample inhaled antigen to initiate immune responses. Therefore, we hypothesized that inflammatory mediators, such as neutrophil elastase (NE) released into the lung, may be able to modulate their activity.
To determine whether sputum (from patients with COPD and those with CF) or NE can alter DC phenotype and function. Method: NE and sputum samples were incubated with immature or mature murine DCs (mDCs). DC phenotype and function were studied by fluorescence-activated cell sorter and Western Blot analysis, assessing their expression of costimulatory molecules and their ability to induce T cell proliferation.
COPD/CF sputum samples and human NE downregulated the expression of CD40, CD80, and CD86 (but not major histocompatibility complex II) on DCs and inhibited LPS-induced DC maturation. This effect was partially (sputa) to significantly (NE) reversed by addition of recombinant secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. Western Blot analysis showed that purified NE degraded CD86 in mDC lysates in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, and caused shedding of CD86 into the supernatants of mDC cultures. NE treatment also inhibited the antigen-presenting ability of mDCs, as measured by their ability to induce ovalbumin-specific D011.10-transgenic T-cell proliferation.
Our data indicate that NE in lung inflammatory secretions of patients with COPD/CF may disable DCs and prevent them from mounting an adequate immune response. This may have implications for the infection-driven generation of disease exacerbations in these two pathologies.
Article: Neutrophil enhancement of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development: human F-actin and DNA as targets for therapy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the cystic fibrosis (CF) airway, chronic infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa results from biofilm formation in a neutrophil-rich environment. We tested the capacity of human neutrophils to modify early biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1, and an isogenic CF strain isolated early and years later in infection. In a static reactor, P. aeruginosa biofilm density of all strains was enhanced at 24 h in the presence of neutrophils, with the greatest relative increase associated with the lowest inoculum of P. aeruginosa tested. Previously, neutrophil-induced biofilm enhancement was shown to largely result from the incorporation of F-actin and DNA polymers into the bacterial biofilm. This finding was advanced by the comparison of biofilm enhancement from intact unstimulated neutrophils and from lysed or apoptotic neutrophils. Apoptotic neutrophils, with an intact cell membrane, were unable to contribute to biofilm enhancement, while lysed neutrophils evoked a similar response to that of intact cells. Using F-actin and DNA as targets, the capacity of negatively charged poly(amino acids) to disrupt, or prevent, early biofilm formation was tested. Anionic poly(aspartic acid) effectively prevented or disrupted biofilm formation. Combination of poly(aspartic acid) with DNase resulted in a synergistic increase in biofilm disruption. These results demonstrate that the presence of dying neutrophils can facilitate the initial stages of biofilm development by low inocula of P. aeruginosa. Neutrophil F-actin represents a potential new therapeutic target for disruption of pathogenic biofilms.Journal of Medical Microbiology 05/2009; 58(Pt 4):492-502. · 2.50 Impact Factor
Article: Proteases and cystic fibrosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis is the most common, inherited fatal disease in Caucasians. The major cause of morbidity and mortality is chronic lung disease due to infection and inflammation in the airways leading to bronchiectasis and respiratory failure. The signature pathologic features of CF lung disease including abnormal mucus obstructing airways, chronic infection with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other gram negative bacteria, and a robust neutrophil-dominant airway inflammation, are exacerbated by unopposed proteases present at high concentrations in the ASL. There is strong evidence that proteases, particularly neutrophil elastase, contribute to the pathology of CF by impairing mucociliary clearance, interfering with innate immune functions, and perpetuating neutrophilic inflammation. The mechanisms employed by proteases to impact airway function in CF will be reviewed.The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 02/2008; 40(6-7):1238-45. · 4.63 Impact Factor
Article: Profound functional and signaling changes in viable inflammatory neutrophils homing to cystic fibrosis airways.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Blood neutrophils recruited to cystic fibrosis (CF) airways are believed to be rapidly killed by resident bacteria and to passively release elastase and other toxic by-products that promote disease progression. By single-cell analysis, we demonstrate that profound functional and signaling changes readily occur within viable neutrophils recruited to CF airways, compared with their blood counterparts. Airway neutrophils have undergone conventional activation, as shown by decreased intracellular glutathione, increased lipid raft assembly, surface mobilization of CD11b+ and CD66b+ granules, and increased levels of the cytoskeleton-associated phospho-Syk kinase. Unexpectedly, they also mobilize to the surface CD63+ elastase-rich granules, usually confined intracellularly, and lose surface expression of CD16 and CD14, both key receptors in phagocytosis. Furthermore, they express CD80, major histocompatibility complex type II, and the prostaglandin D2 receptor CD294, all normally associated with other lineages, which reflects functional reprogramming. This notion is reinforced by their decreased total phosphotyrosine levels, mirroring a postactivated stage, and increased levels of the phospho-S6 ribosomal protein, a key anabolic switch. Thus, we identified a subset of neutrophils within CF airways with a viable but dysfunctional phenotype. This subset provides a possible therapeutic target and indicates a need to revisit current paradigms of CF airway disease.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2008; 105(11):4335-9. · 9.68 Impact Factor