Pediatric sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
International Journal of Surgical Pathology (Impact Factor: 0.96). 08/2006; 14(3):193-9. DOI: 10.1177/1066896906290558
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma, a particular phenotypic variant of rhabdomyosarcoma initially described in the adult population, has emerged as a potential pitfall in the evaluation of pediatric sarcomas. Because of its densely hyalinized collagenous matrix and its occasional expression of a pseudovascular pattern of growth, sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma has been at times misdiagnosed as chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, or angiosarcoma. We describe 3 pediatric patients with sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma and provide a detailed description of its distinguishing pathologic features. Awareness about this rhabdomyosarcoma variant and careful immunophenotypical evaluation are necessary to establish the correct diagnosis. Although no specific genetic aberrations have been recognized, yet the cytogenetic findings in 2 tumors of this series suggest a link with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. It is likely that further genotyping will result in better nosologic delineation of sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma and that it will uncover pathogenetically and prognostically relevant genes.

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    ABSTRACT: A rare sclerosing variant of rhabdomyosarcoma characterized by prominent hyalinization and pseudovascular pattern has recently been described as a subtype biologically distinct from embryonal, alveolar, and pleomorphic forms. We present cytogenetic and molecular findings as well as experimental studies of an unusual case of sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma. The primary lesion arose within the plantar subcutaneous tissue of the left foot of an otherwise healthy 23-year-old male who eventually developed pulmonary nodules despite systemic chemotherapy. Two genetic abnormalities identified in surgical and/or autopsy samples of the tumor were introduced into 10T1/2 murine fibroblasts to determine whether these genetic changes cooperatively facilitated transformation and growth. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a complex abnormal hyperdiploid clone, and MDM2 gene amplification was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cancer gene mutation screening using a combination of multiplexed PCR and mass spectroscopy revealed a PIK3CA exon 20 H1047R mutation in the primary tumor, lung metastasis, and liver metastasis. However, this mutation was not cooperative with MDM2 overexpression in experimental assays for transformation or growth. Nevertheless, MDM2 and PIK3CA are genes worthy of further investigation in patients with sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma and might be considered in the enrollment of these patients into clinical trials of targeted therapeutics.
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    ABSTRACT: Involvement of the Wnt signal transduction pathway has been shown in different pediatric embryonal tumors, such as hepatoblastoma, nephroblastoma, pancreatoblastoma, and medulloblastoma. There are few data available on the status of beta-catenin in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), another pediatric embryonal tumor. The aims of this study were 1st to verify the status of the exon 3 of CTNNB1 and 2nd to assess the usefulness of beta-catenin immunostaining in a small series of 8 embryonal RMS, 3 alveolar RMS, and 1 sclerosing RMS (SRMS). Sequence analysis revealed no mutations in the exon 3 of CTNNB1 in all the tumors studied. All RMS showed a cytoplasmic beta-catenin staining with cytoplasmic membrane reinforcement and no nuclear delocalization. We conclude that there is no evidence of beta-catenin mutation in the genesis of rhabdomyosarcoma and that beta-catenin does not represent a useful immunomarker to help distinguish between embryonal RMS and alveolar RMS.
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