Jewkes R, Dunkle K, Koss MP, et al. Rape perpetration by young, rural South African men: prevalence, patterns and risk factors

Gender & Health Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Medical Research Council Private Bag X385, Pretoria 0001, South Africa.
Social Science & Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.89). 01/2007; 63(11):2949-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.07.027
Source: PubMed


Sexual violence is a well-recognised global health problem, but there has been remarkably little research on men as perpetrators. The objectives of this paper are to describe the prevalence, patterns and factors associated with rape of an intimate partner and a woman who was not a partner with men aged 15-26 years in rural South Africa. The analysis presented here is of data collected during a baseline survey of participants in a cluster randomised controlled trial of an HIV behavioural intervention. A total of 1370 male volunteers were recruited from 70 rural South African villages. They completed a questionnaire asking about background, sexual practices and perpetration of rape and intimate partner violence. Among these men 16.3% had raped a non-partner, or participated in a form of gang rape; 8.4% had been sexually violent towards an intimate partner; and 79.1% had done neither. The mean age of first rape was 17 years. There was overlap between rape of a non-partner and partner, in that 44.3% of men who raped an intimate partner had also raped a non-partner, but overall the great majority of men who raped did not disclose both types of rape. The factors associated with rape of an intimate partner and non-partner had similarities and differences. After adjusting for the other variables, both forms of rape were strongly associated with ever having been physically violent to a partner, having had transactional sex with a casual partner and more sexual partners. Non-partner rape was also associated with peer-related variables, including gang membership and peer pressure to have sex, and also drug use. Non-partner rape was more common among wealthier and relatively more socially advantaged men. Both types of rape were associated with having more adverse childhood experiences. There was considerable overlap between rape-associated factors and known HIV risk factors, suggesting a need for further research on the interface of rape and HIV, and integrated prevention programming.

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Available from: Mzikazi Nduna, Feb 25, 2015
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    • "There is evidence for a connection between sexual aggression and prostitution . Buying sex has been associated with men's perpetration of genderbased violence, including perpetration of physical and sexual violence against intimate partners (Decker et al., 2009; Raj, Reed, Welles, Santana, & Silverman, 2008) and perpetration of rape against both partners and nonpartners (Jewkes et al., 2006; Monto & McRee, 2005). College-aged men who used women in prostitution reported having committed more sexually coercive behaviors than men who had not used women in prostitution (Schmidt, 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated attitudes and behaviors associated with prostitution and sexual aggression among 101 men who buy sex and 101 age-, education-, and ethnicity-matched men who did not buy sex. Both groups tended to accept rape myths, be aware of harms of prostitution and trafficking, express ambivalence about the nature of prostitution, and believe that jail time and public exposure are the most effective deterrents to buying sex. Sex buyers were more likely than men who did not buy sex to report sexual aggression and likelihood to rape. Men who bought sex scored higher on measures of impersonal sex and hostile masculinity and had less empathy for prostituted women, viewing them as intrinsically different from other women. When compared with non-sex-buyers, these findings indicate that men who buy sex share certain key characteristics with men at risk of committing sexual aggression as documented by research based on the leading scientific model of the characteristics of non-criminal sexually aggressive men, the Confluence Model of sexual aggression. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence 08/2015; DOI:10.1177/0886260515600874 · 1.64 Impact Factor
    • "Kimmel, Hearn, & Connell, 2005). However, their accounts of rather formal and ritualised physical interactions with their daughters, specifically in talking to interviewers who may have been perceived as outsiders judging the appropriateness of their behaviour toward their daughter, should also be seen against the backdrop of the social media's highlighting of the prevalence of men as perpetrators of sexual abuse in South African families over the past years (Jewkes et al., 2006; Thege, 2009). It is therefore possible that the fathers wished to portray a 'proper' physical relationship with their daughters and to avoid perceptions of inappropriate physical interactions with daughters. "
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    ABSTRACT: Article available at Abstract: Knowledge about father–adolescent daughter relationships is mostly based on research in North-American and European contexts. Furthermore, it tends to rely on either fathers' or daughters' perspectives, and not on dyadic data. Informed by a social constructionist perspective, this study investigated the fatherhood constructions of fathers and adolescent daughters in a South African low-income community. We used Charmaz' social constructionist grounded theory method. Forty-two interviews were conducted separately with fourteen fathers and their adolescent daughters. Five conceptual categories were identified: (i) Predominance of fathers' provider role; (ii) Fathers and daughters having an ‘understanding’ in which daughters apparently complied with fathers authoritarian positions; (iii) explicit expressions of affection were mostly limited to special occasions; (iv) Fathers wished a better future for their daughters and attempted to keep them on track to such a future and (v) lastly, Fathers' expected daughters to follow their instructions and not their bad examples. Our findings highlight the influential and constricting role of dominant masculine and feminine gender notions in the discourses and practices of the fathers and adolescent daughters in our study. However, some evidence of contestations were present that suggests the potential of a shift towards more equitable gender relations
    Journal of Gender Studies 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/09589236.2015.1051521 · 0.67 Impact Factor
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    • "old account for over 90 percent of deaths due to homicide (Prinsloo, 2007). Related to the high levels of violence in communities, is a long tradition of male superiority in South Africa, manifested through high levels of violence and sexual violence against women (Jewkes et al., 2006), carrying of weapons, and high readiness to resort to violence to resolve disputes (see Cooper & Foster, 2008; Jewkes et al., 2006; Seedat et al., 2009). Gang-inspired masculinities are argued to be one of few options to achieve a positive identity and status for males growing up in deprived, marginalized, and violent communities (Bruce, 2007; Cooper & Foster, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Research in high-income countries has identified an array of risk factors for youth antisocial behavior. However, in low- and middle-income countries, despite higher prevalence of offending and antisocial behavior, there is a paucity of prospective, longitudinal evidence examining predictors. South Africa is a middle-income country with high rates of violence and crime, and a unique social context, characterized by striking income and gender inequality, and increasing number of children orphaned by AIDS. We tested predictors of antisocial behavior at community, family, and individual levels over four years. One thousand and twenty five adolescents from poor, urban South African settlements were assessed in 2005 (50 percent female; M = 13.4 years) and followed up in 2009. The sample analyzed consisted of the 723 youth (71 percent) assessed at both time points. We employed sociodemographic questionnaires and standardized scales. Validity of our antisocial behavior measure was supported by cross-sectional associations with well-evidenced concomitants of youth antisocial behavior, including drug taking and truancy. Regression analysis indicated that male gender and experience of community violence, but not poverty or abuse, predicted antisocial behavior. Despite many South African youth experiencing abuse and poverty at the family level, our findings suggest that high levels of violence in communities may be a more important factor contributing to the development of antisocial behavior, particularly among males.
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