The recent identification of tribbles as regulators of signal processing systems and physiological processes, including development, together with their potential involvement in diabetes and cancer, has generated considerable interest in these proteins. Tribbles have been reported to regulate activation of a number of intracellular signalling pathways with roles extending from mitosis and cell activation to apoptosis and modulation of gene expression. The current review summarises our current understanding of interactions between tribbles and various other proteins. Since our understanding on the molecular basis of tribbles function is far from complete, we also describe a bioinformatic analysis of various segments of tribbles proteins, which has revealed a number of highly conserved peptide motifs with potentially important functional roles.
"Among those pathways, the importance of MAPK3/1 and MAPK14 signaling in the regulation of bovine oocyte maturation was previously highlighted [33,35,44]. Moreover, Tribbles also take part in these pathways in different cell types [31,32,45]. For instance, the increase of TRIB3 expression in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells resulted in the inhibition of MAPK14, MAPK3/1 and MAPK8 (JNK) activities via binding to MAPK kinase . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mammals, the Tribbles family includes widely expressed serine-threonine kinase-like proteins (TRIB1, TRIB2 and TRIB3) that are involved in multiple biological processes including cell proliferation and fatty acid (FA) metabolism. Our recent studies highlighted the importance of FA metabolism in cumulus cells (CC) during oocyte maturation in vertebrates and reported a higher TRIB1 expression in CC surrounding in vivo mature oocytes as compared to immature ooocytes in mice and cows. The objective was to investigate Tribbles expression patterns in bovine CC during in vitro maturation (IVM) and to examine their roles in the cumulus-oocyte complex.
Tribbles gene expression was analyzed in bovine and murine CC using quantitative RT-PCR. Proteins were detected using Western blot and intracellular localization was assessed by immunofluorescence. Bovine COCs were treated with etomoxir, an inhibitor of FA oxidation (FAO) which blocks CPT1 activity, during 6 h and 18 h IVM. Oocyte meiotic stage was assessed and expression of Tribbles and lipid metabolism genes was quantified in CC.
TRIB1 and TRIB3 were more strongly expressed whereas TRIB2 was less expressed in CC surrounding the oocytes from preovulatory follicles than in CC of immature ones. In CC, Tribbles were located in the cytoplasm and nucleus; in mitotic cells TRIB2 and TRIB3 were detected in the spindle. In the oocyte, Tribbles proteins were detected in the ooplasm; also TRIB2 and TRIB3 were more accumulated in the germinal vesicle. In bovine CC, expression of TRIB1 and TRIB3 was transiently increased at a time preceding oocyte meiosis resumption in vitro. Treatment with etomoxir (150 μM) during IVM resulted in a significant reduction of oocyte maturation rate and decreased MAPK3/1 phosphorylation in the oocytes. In CC, 18 h IVM of etomoxir treatment significantly increased expression of TRIB1, TRIB3, CPTA1 (enzyme regulating FA entry in mitochondria for FAO) and CD36 (thrombospondin receptor involved in FA transport). Under the same conditions, expression of TRIB2 and ACACA (Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase involved in FA synthesis) decreased in CC. All considered, Tribbles family members may be involved in cell proliferation and in FAO signaling in CC and participate in oocyte meiotic resumption regulation.
Journal of Ovarian Research 04/2014; 7(1):44. DOI:10.1186/1757-2215-7-44 · 2.43 Impact Factor
"TRBs have an N-terminal domain, central kinase-like domain, and C-terminal protein-binding domain (Figure 1). However, investigators discovered significant variations in the amino acids in the ATP binding pocket and the kinase catalytic core (review in [18, 30, 32]). Early studies suggested that TRBs could bind to kinase-dependent proteins, but they lacked kinase activity [24, 26]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2000, investigators discovered Tribbles, a Drosophila protein that coordinates morphogenesis by inhibiting mitosis. Further work has delineated Xenopus (Xtrb2), Nematode (Nipi-3), and mammalian homologs of Drosophila tribbles, which include TRB1, TRB2, and TRB3. The sequences of tribbles homologs are highly conserved, and despite their protein kinase structure, to date they have not been shown to have kinase activity. TRB family members play a role in the differentiation of macrophages, lymphocytes, muscle cells, adipocytes, and osteoblasts. TRB isoforms also coordinate a number of critical cellular processes including glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, cellular stress, survival, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. TRB family members modulate multiple complex signaling networks including mitogen activated protein kinase cascades, protein kinase B/AKT signaling, mammalian target of rapamycin, and inflammatory pathways. The following review will discuss metazoan homologs of Drosophila tribbles, their structure, expression patterns, and functions. In particular, we will focus on TRB3 function in the kidney in podocytes. This review will also discuss the key signaling pathways with which tribbles proteins interact and provide a rationale for developing novel therapeutics that exploit these interactions to provide better treatment options for both acute and chronic kidney disease.
"In recent years, a family of negative regulators of MAPK and PI3K cascades, called tribbles (trb) have emerged. These are evolutionally conserved, kinase-like proteins; their catalytic domain is missing some of the conserved residues thought to be indispensable for kinase activity . They have been shown to interact with several transcription factors (reviewed in ) as well as MAPK-kinases (MKKs)  and Akt . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of the atherosclerotic plaque involves a complex interplay between a number of cell types and an extensive inter-cellular communication via cell bound as well as soluble mediators. The family of tribbles proteins has recently been identified as novel controllers of pro-inflammatory signal transduction. The objective of this study was to address the expression pattern of all three tribbles proteins in atherosclerotic plaques from a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Each tribbles were expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells as well as in resident macrophages of mouse atherosclerotic plaques. The role of IL-1 mediated inflammatory events in controlling tribbles expression was also addressed by inducing experimental atherosclerosis in ApoE-/-IL1R1-/- (double knockout) mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of these mice showed a selective decrease in the percentage of trb-1 expressing macrophages, compared to the ApoE-/- cohort (14.7% ± 1.55 vs. 26.3% ± 1.19). The biological significance of this finding was verified in vitro where overexpression of trb-1 in macrophages led to a significant attenuation (~70%) of IL-6 production as well as a suppressed IL-12 expression induced by a proinflammatory stimulus. In this in vitro setting, expression of truncated trb-1 mutants suggests that the kinase domain of this protein is sufficient to exert this inhibitory action.
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