Tribbles: a family of kinase-like proteins with potent signalling regulatory function.
ABSTRACT The recent identification of tribbles as regulators of signal processing systems and physiological processes, including development, together with their potential involvement in diabetes and cancer, has generated considerable interest in these proteins. Tribbles have been reported to regulate activation of a number of intracellular signalling pathways with roles extending from mitosis and cell activation to apoptosis and modulation of gene expression. The current review summarises our current understanding of interactions between tribbles and various other proteins. Since our understanding on the molecular basis of tribbles function is far from complete, we also describe a bioinformatic analysis of various segments of tribbles proteins, which has revealed a number of highly conserved peptide motifs with potentially important functional roles.
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ABSTRACT: Drosophila Tribbles (Trbl) is the founding member of the Trib family of kinase-like docking proteins that modulate cell signaling during proliferation, migration and growth. In a wing misexpression screen for Trbl interacting proteins, we identified the Ser/Thr protein kinase Akt1. Given the central role of Akt1 in insulin signaling, we tested the function of Trbl in larval fat body, a tissue where rapid increases in size are exquisitely sensitive to insulin/insulin-like growth factor levels. Consistent with a role in antagonizing insulin-mediated growth, trbl RNAi knockdown in the fat body increased cell size, advanced the timing of pupation and increased levels of circulating triglyceride. Complementarily, overexpression of Trbl reduced fat body cell size, decreased overall larval size, delayed maturation and lowered levels of triglycerides, while circulating glucose levels increased. The conserved Trbl kinase domain is required for function in vivo and for interaction with Akt in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Consistent with direct regulation of Akt, overexpression of Trbl in the fat body decreased levels of activated Akt (pSer505-Akt) while misexpression of trbl RNAi increased phospho-Akt levels, and neither treatment affected total Akt levels. Trbl misexpression effectively suppressed Akt-mediated wing and muscle cell size increases and reduced phosphorylation of the Akt target FoxO (pSer256-FoxO). Taken together, these data show that Drosophila Trbl has a conserved role to bind Akt and block Akt-mediated insulin signaling, and implicate Trib proteins as novel sites of signaling pathway integration that link nutrient availability with cell growth and proliferation. Citation: Das R, Sebo Z, Pence L, Dobens LL (2014) Drosophila Tribbles Antagonizes Insulin Signaling-Mediated Growth and Metabolism via Interactions with Akt Kinase. PLoS ONE 9(10): e109530. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109530 Copyright: ß 2014 Das et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: The authors confirm that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Funding: This work was supported by a research grant from the National Science Foundation (RPG-00251-01-DDC) and support from the University of Missouri Research Board to LLD. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.PLoS ONE 10/2014; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tribbles pseudokinase-3 (TRIB3) has been proposed to act as an inhibitor of AKT although the precise molecular basis of this activity and whether the loss of TRIB3 contributes to cancer initiation and progression remain to be clarified. In this study, by using a wide array of in vitro and in vivo approaches, including a Trib3 knockout mouse, we demonstrate that TRIB3 has a tumor-suppressing role. We also find that the mechanism by which TRIB3 loss enhances tumorigenesis relies on the dysregulation of the phosphorylation of AKT by the mTORC2 complex, which leads to an enhanced phosphorylation of AKT on Ser473 and the subsequent hyperphosphorylation and inactivation of the transcription factor FOXO3. These observations support the notion that loss of TRIB3 is associated with a more aggressive phenotype in various types of tumors by enhancing the activity of the mTORC2/AKT/FOXO axis.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 29 August 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.133.Cell Death and Differentiation 08/2014; · 8.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prenatal ethanol exposure causes cellular stress, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance in adult offspring, with increased gluconeogenesis and reduced muscle glucose transporter-4 (glut4) expression. Impaired insulin activation of Akt and nuclear translocation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the liver partly explain increased gluconeogenesis. The mechanism for the reduced glut4 is unknown. Pregnant rats were gavaged with ethanol over the last week of gestation and adult female offspring were studied. Some ethanol exposed offspring was treated with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) for 3 weeks. All these rats underwent intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests. The expression of glut4, HDACs, and markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (XBP1, CHOP, ATF6) was examined in the gastrocnemius muscle fractions, and in C2C12 muscle cells cultured with ethanol, TUDCA, and HDAC inhibitors. Non-TUDCA-treated rats exposed to prenatal ethanol were insulin resistant and glucose intolerant with reduced muscle glut4 expression, increased ER marker expression, and increased nuclear HDACs, whereas TUDCA-treated rats had normal insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance with normal glut4 expression, ER marker expression, and HDAC levels. In C2C12 cells, ethanol reduced glut4 expression, but increased ER makers. While TUDCA restored glut4 and ER markers to control levels and HDAC inhibition rescued glut4 expression, HDAC inhibition had no effect on ER markers. The increase in nuclear HDAC levels consequent to prenatal ethanol exposure reduces glut4 expression in adult rat offspring, and this HDAC effect is independent of ER unfolded protein response. HDAC inhibition by TUDCA restores glut4 expression, with improvement in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance.Physiological Reports. 12/2014; 2(12).