Tribbles: a family of kinase-like proteins with potent signalling regulatory function.
ABSTRACT The recent identification of tribbles as regulators of signal processing systems and physiological processes, including development, together with their potential involvement in diabetes and cancer, has generated considerable interest in these proteins. Tribbles have been reported to regulate activation of a number of intracellular signalling pathways with roles extending from mitosis and cell activation to apoptosis and modulation of gene expression. The current review summarises our current understanding of interactions between tribbles and various other proteins. Since our understanding on the molecular basis of tribbles function is far from complete, we also describe a bioinformatic analysis of various segments of tribbles proteins, which has revealed a number of highly conserved peptide motifs with potentially important functional roles.
Article: Expression of regulatory T-cell-related molecule genes and clinical outcome in kidney transplant recipients.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Naturally occurring regulatory T cells have been associated with long-term allograft survival. We investigated whether gene transcripts of Treg-related molecules are upregulated or downregulated in kidney transplant recipients with different clinical outcomes and may serve as markers of operative tolerance. Expression levels of transcription factor (forkhead box P3 [FOXP3], t-bet, and GATA3), regulatory molecule (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein, tribbles protein-1, and transforming growth factor-beta), and chemokine receptor (CCR7 and CXCR4) genes were measured in kidney graft recipients with long-term (> or = 9 years) stable renal function (LTS) or chronic rejection (ChrRx). Patients on dialysis and healthy individuals served as controls. The level of FOXP3 transcripts was lower in ChrRx patients than in LTS patients (P<0.01). The highest transforming growth factor-beta transcripts were observed in ChrRx and the highest CCR7 and CXCR4 transcripts were observed in LTS patients. In LTS patients, FOXP3 gene expression was associated with CXCR4 gene expression (P=0.015). FOXP3 and CCR7 transcript levels were higher in LTS patients without calcineurin inhibitor therapy than in LTS patients with calcineurin inhibitors. Our results suggest that high expression of FOXP3 and chemokine receptor genes in LTS patients are possible indicators of a regulatory process that contributes to long-term allograft acceptance. Markers that were increased in LTS patients were found to be decreased in ChrRx patients, suggesting that rejection may partly be the result of a lack of this regulatory process. FOXP3 and CCR7 and CXCR4 transcripts might be used as markers to distinguish patients who developed long-term allograft acceptance from patients who are prone to ChrRx.Transplantation 03/2009; 87(6):857-63. · 4.00 Impact Factor
Article: Identification of 34 novel proinflammatory proteins in a genome-wide macrophage functional screen.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Signal transduction pathways activated by Toll-like Receptors and the IL-1 family of cytokines are fundamental to mounting an innate immune response and thus to clearing pathogens and promoting wound healing. Whilst mechanistic understanding of the regulation of innate signalling pathways has advanced considerably in recent years, there are still a number of critical controllers to be discovered. In order to characterise novel regulators of macrophage inflammation, we have carried out an extensive, cDNA-based forward genetic screen and identified 34 novel activators, based on their ability to induce the expression of cxcl2. Many are physiologically expressed in macrophages, although the majority of genes uncovered in our screen have not previously been linked to innate immunity. We show that expression of particular activators has profound but distinct impacts on LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression, including switch-type, amplifier and sensitiser behaviours. Furthermore, the novel genes identified here interact with the canonical inflammatory signalling network via specific mechanisms, as demonstrated by the use of dominant negative forms of IL1/TLR signalling mediators.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e42388. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Endoplasmic reticulum stress response in an INS-1 pancreatic beta-cell line with inducible expression of a folding-deficient proinsulin.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cells respond to endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER) stress by activating the unfolded protein response. To study the ER stress response in pancreatic beta-cells we developed a model system that allows for pathophysiological ER stress based on the Akita mouse. This mouse strain expresses a mutant insulin 2 gene (C96Y), which prevents normal proinsulin folding causing ER stress and eventual beta-cell apoptosis. A double-stable pancreatic beta-cell line (pTet-ON INS-1) with inducible expression of insulin 2 (C96Y) fused to EGFP was generated to study the ER stress response. Expression of Ins 2 (C96Y)-EGFP resulted in activation of the ER stress pathways (PERK, IRE1 and ATF6) and caused dilation of the ER. To identify gene expression changes resulting from mutant insulin expression we performed microarray expression profiling and real time PCR experiments. We observed an induction of various ER chaperone, co-chaperone and ER-associated degradation genes after 24 h and an increase in pro-apoptotic genes (Chop and Trib3) following 48 h of mutant insulin expression. The latter changes occurred at a time when general apoptosis was detected in the cell population, although the relative amount of cell death was low. Inhibiting the proteasome or depleting Herp protein expression increased mutant insulin levels and enhanced cell apoptosis, indicating that ER-associated degradation is maintaining cell survival. The inducible mutant insulin expressing cell model has allowed for the identification of the ER stress response in beta-cells and the repertoire of genes/proteins induced is unique to this cell type. ER-associated degradation is essential in maintaining cell survival in cells expressing mutant insulin. This cell model will be useful for the molecular characterization of ER stress-induced genes.BMC Cell Biology 01/2010; 11:59. · 2.59 Impact Factor