We have previously shown that treatment of rats with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N6-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester for 4 weeks resulted in the augmentation of blood pressure and enhanced levels of Gialpha proteins. The present studies were undertaken to investigate if NO can modulate the expression of Gi proteins and associated adenylyl cyclase signaling. A10 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and primary cultured cells from aorta of Sprague-Dawley rats were used for these studies. The cells were treated with S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for 24 h and the expression of Gialpha proteins was determined by immunobloting techniques. Adenylyl cyclase activity was determined by measuring [32P]cAMP formation for [alpha-32P]ATP. Treatment of cells with SNAP (100 microM) or SNP (0.5 mM) decreased the expression of Gialpha-2 and Gialpha-3 by about 25-40% without affecting the levels of Gsalpha proteins. The decreased expression of Gialpha proteins was reflected in decreased Gi functions (receptor-independent and -dependent) as demonstrated by decreased or attenuated forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity by GTPgammaS and inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity by angiotensin II and C-ANP4-23, a ring-deleted analog of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) that specifically interacts with natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPR-C) in SNAP-treated cells. The SNAP-induced decreased expression of Gialpha-2 and Gialpha-3 proteins was not blocked by 1H[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase, or KT5823, an inhibitor of protein kinase G, but was restored toward control levels by uric acid, a scavenger of peroxynitrite and Mn(111)tetralis (benzoic acid porphyrin) MnTBAP, a peroxynitrite scavenger and a superoxide dismutase mimetic agent that inhibits the production of peroxynitrite, suggesting that NO-mediated decreased expression of Gialpha protein was cGMP-independent and may be attributed to increased levels of peroxynitrite. In addition, Gsalpha-mediated stimulation of adenylyl cyclase by GTPgammaS, isoproterenol, and forskolin was significantly augmented in SNAP-treated cells. These results indicate that NO decreased the expression of Gialpha protein and associated functions in VSMC by cGMP-independent mechanisms. From these studies, it can be suggested that NO-induced decreased levels of Gi proteins and resultant increased levels of cAMP may be an additional mechanism through which NO regulates blood pressure.
"A similar effect of SNAP (s-nitroso-N-acetylpencillamine), another NO donor, as well as L-NAME, on ET-1-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in A10 VSMC has also been reported in studies from our laboratory (Fig. 2A and 2B) . Since SNAP raises intracellular cGMP levels via sGC in A10 VSMC [65,66], additional studies demonstrated that 8-Br-cGMP (8-bromoguanosine 3’, 5’-cyclic monophosphate), a non-hydro-lyzable analogue of cGMP, mimicked the effect of SNAP and SNP and inhibited ET-1 stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation (Fig. 2C) . Moreover, the ability of ODQ (1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3,-a]quino-xalin-1-one), a selective sGC inhibitor, to reverse SNAP-induced attenuation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation (Fig. 2D)  established a role of activated sGC and cGMP in mediating the effects of these NO donors on ET-1-induced ERK signaling. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is an important vasoprotective molecule that serves not only as a vasodilator but also exerts antihypertrophic and antiproliferative effects in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). The precise mechanism by which the antihypertrophic and antiproliferative responses of NO are mediated remains obscure. However, recent studies have suggested that one of the mechanisms by which this may be achieved includes the attenuation of signal transduction pathways responsible for inducing the hypertrophic and proliferative program in VSMC. Endothelin-1 is a powerful vasoconstrictor peptide with mitogenic and growth stimulatory properties and exerts its effects by activating multiple signaling pathways which include ERK 1/2, PKB and Rho-ROCK. Both cGMP-dependent and independent events have been reported to mediate the effect of NO on these pathways leading to its vasoprotective response. This review briefly summarizes some key studies on the modulatory effect of NO on these signaling pathways and discusses the possible role of cGMP system in this process.
Current Cardiology Reviews 11/2010; 6(4):247-54. DOI:10.2174/157340310793566055
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO), in addition to its vasodilator action, has also been shown to antagonize the mitogenic and hypertrophic responses of growth factors and vasoactive peptides such as endothelin-1 (ET-1) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, the mechanism by which NO exerts its antimitogenic and antihypertrophic effect remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether NO generation would modify ET-1-induced signaling pathways involved in cellular growth, proliferation, and hypertrophy in A-10 VSMCs. Treatment of A-10 VSMCs with S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP), two NO donors, attenuated the ET-1-enhanced phosphorylation of several key components of growth-promoting and hypertrophic signaling pathways such as ERK1/2, PKB, and Pyk2. On the other hand, inhibition of the endogenous NO generation with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, increased the ET-1-induced phosphorylation of these signaling components. Since NO mediates its effect principally through a cGMP-soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) pathway, we investigated the role of these molecules in NO action. 8-Bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, a nonmetabolizable and cell-permeant analog of cGMP, exhibited a effect similar to that of SNAP and SNP. Furthermore, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), an inhibitor of sGC, reversed the inhibitory effect of NO on ET-1-induced responses. SNAP treatment also decreased the protein synthesis induced by ET-1. Together, these data demonstrate that NO, in a cGMP-dependent manner, attenuated ET-1-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, PKB, and Pyk2 and also antagonized the hypertrophic effects of ET-1. It may be suggested that NO-induced generation of cGMP contributes to the inhibition of ET-1-induced mitogenic and hypertrophic responses in VSMCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is a physiologically important modulator of both vasomotor tone and platelet aggregability. These effects of NO are predominantly mediated by cyclic guanosine-3,'5'-monophosphate (cGMP) via activation of soluble guanylate cyclase. However, in patients with ischemic heart disease, platelets and coronary/peripheral arteries are hyporesponsive to the antiaggregatory and vasodilator effects of NO donors. NO resistance is also associated with a number of coronary risk factors and presents in different disease states. It correlates with conventional measures of "endothelial dysfunction," and represents a multifaceted disorder, in which smooth muscle and platelet NO resistance are equally important, as sites of abnormal NO-driven physiology. NO resistance results largely from a combination of "scavenging" of NO by superoxide anion radical (O(2)(-)) and of (reversible) inactivation of soluble guanylate cyclase. It constitutes an impaired physiological response to endogenous NO (endothelium-derived relaxing factor, EDRF) and, as such, may contribute to the increased risk of ischemic events. Impairment in responsiveness to NO in ischemic patients implies a potential problem that those patients, in greatest need of nitrate therapy, may be least likely to respond. The prognostic impact of NO resistance at vascular and platelet levels has been demonstrated in patients with ischemic heart disease, and it has been shown that a number of agents (angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors, perhexiline, insulin, and possibly statins) ameliorate this anomaly. The current review examines different aspects of the "NO resistance" phenomenon and discusses some related methodological issues.
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