Nitric oxide modulates Gi-protein expression and adenylyl cyclase signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells.
ABSTRACT We have previously shown that treatment of rats with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N6-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester for 4 weeks resulted in the augmentation of blood pressure and enhanced levels of Gialpha proteins. The present studies were undertaken to investigate if NO can modulate the expression of Gi proteins and associated adenylyl cyclase signaling. A10 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and primary cultured cells from aorta of Sprague-Dawley rats were used for these studies. The cells were treated with S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for 24 h and the expression of Gialpha proteins was determined by immunobloting techniques. Adenylyl cyclase activity was determined by measuring [32P]cAMP formation for [alpha-32P]ATP. Treatment of cells with SNAP (100 microM) or SNP (0.5 mM) decreased the expression of Gialpha-2 and Gialpha-3 by about 25-40% without affecting the levels of Gsalpha proteins. The decreased expression of Gialpha proteins was reflected in decreased Gi functions (receptor-independent and -dependent) as demonstrated by decreased or attenuated forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity by GTPgammaS and inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity by angiotensin II and C-ANP4-23, a ring-deleted analog of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) that specifically interacts with natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPR-C) in SNAP-treated cells. The SNAP-induced decreased expression of Gialpha-2 and Gialpha-3 proteins was not blocked by 1H[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase, or KT5823, an inhibitor of protein kinase G, but was restored toward control levels by uric acid, a scavenger of peroxynitrite and Mn(111)tetralis (benzoic acid porphyrin) MnTBAP, a peroxynitrite scavenger and a superoxide dismutase mimetic agent that inhibits the production of peroxynitrite, suggesting that NO-mediated decreased expression of Gialpha protein was cGMP-independent and may be attributed to increased levels of peroxynitrite. In addition, Gsalpha-mediated stimulation of adenylyl cyclase by GTPgammaS, isoproterenol, and forskolin was significantly augmented in SNAP-treated cells. These results indicate that NO decreased the expression of Gialpha protein and associated functions in VSMC by cGMP-independent mechanisms. From these studies, it can be suggested that NO-induced decreased levels of Gi proteins and resultant increased levels of cAMP may be an additional mechanism through which NO regulates blood pressure.
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ABSTRACT: Most cells contain two forms of the alpha subunit of the G protein (Gs) that stimulates adenylate cyclase; their apparent molecular weights are 45,000 and 52,000. Two cDNAs that correspond to distinct mRNAs for the alpha subunit of Gs have been cloned from a bovine adrenal library and sequenced. The sequences of the two cDNAs, designated pGs-l and pGs-S, are identical except for a single stretch of 46 nucleotides in the coding region, where four are altered and 42 are deleted in pGs-S. Expression of pGs-S and pGs-l in COS-m6 cells yields protein products with apparent molecular weights of 45,000 and 52,000, respectively, based on their mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. We conclude that pGs-S and pGs-l encode the 45- and 52-kDa forms of Gs alpha, respectively, and propose that the mRNAs encoding these proteins arise from a single gene by internal alternative RNA splicing.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/1986; 261(21):9587-90. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the roles of PKCalpha and G(i)alpha in regulating cPLA(2) activity in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell membrane under peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) stimulation. Treatment of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells with ONOO(-) markedly stimulates the cell membrane associated protease activity, protein kinase C (PKC) activity, phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity, and arachidonic acid (AA) release from the cells. ONOO(-) significantly increases (Ca(2+))(i) in the cells, and pretreatment with the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM prevents the increase in (Ca(2+))(i), protease activity, PKC activity, and cPLA(2) activity in the cell membrane and AA release from the cells. Pretreatment of the cells with arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF(3)) (a cPLA(2) inhibitor) prevents ONOO(-)-stimulated cPLA(2) activity and AA release without producing a significant alteration of the protease activity. Pretreatment with vitamin E and aprotinin prevents ONOO(-)-induced increase in the protease activity, PKC activity, and cPLA(2) activity in the cell membrane and AA release from the cells. Pretreatment with the PKC inhibitor calphostin C prevents ONOO(-)-caused increase in PKC activity and cPLA(2) activity in the cell membrane and AA release from the cells. An immunoblot study of the cell membrane isolated from the ONOO(-)-treated cells with polyclonal PKCalpha antibody elicited an increase in the 80 kDa immunoreactive protein band along with an additional 47 kDa immunoreactive fragment. An immunoblot study with anti-nitrotyrosine antibody revealed that ONOO(-) induces nitration of tyrosine residues in PKCalpha. Pretreatment of the cells with aprotinin abolished the 47 kDa immunoreactive fragment in the immunoblot. An immunoblot study of the endothelial cell membrane with polyclonal cPLA(2) antibody revealed that treatment of the cells with ONOO(-) markedly increases the cPLA(2) immunoreactive protein profile in the membrane. Pretreatment of the endothelial cells with Go6976, a PKCalpha inhibitor, prevents the increase in PKC activity and cPLA(2) activity in the cell membrane under ONOO(-)-triggered condition. It, therefore, appears from the present study that treatment of the cells with ONOO(-) causes an increase in the protease activity, and that plays an important role in activating PKCalpha, which subsequently stimulates cPLA(2) activity in the cell membrane and AA release from the cells. An immunoblot assay with polyclonal G(i)alpha antibody elicited an immunoreactive band having a molecular mass of 41 kDa. Pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin markedly inhibits ONOO(-)-induced increase in cPLA(2) activity and AA release without significantly altering (Ca(2+))(i), protease activity, and PKC activity in the cell membrane. Treatment of the cells with ONOO(-) causes phosphorylation of G(i)alpha in the cell membrane, and pretreatment with Go6976 prevents its phosphorylation. We suggest the existence of a pertusssis toxin sensitive G protein-mediated mechanism for activation of cPLA(2) by ONOO(-) in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell membrane, which is regulated by PKCalpha-dependent phosphorylation and sensitive to aprotinin for its inhibition.Biochemistry 05/2005; 44(13):5246-57. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The role of G proteins in mediating the responses of the heart to circulating catecholamines and to the influences of the autonomic nervous system is of special interest to cardiologists. It is evident that G proteins are essential links in the cascade of biochemical events that ensure when neurotransmitters and hormones interact with receptors on myocardial cells. It is likely [corrected] that dysfunction of G proteins plays a role in cardiovascular pathophysiology. With current methodologies, especially molecular biological and recombinant DNA techniques, and with transgenic animal models that can relate physiological function and specific gene dosage, some cardiovascular diseases may be traced to G protein-related defects.Circulation 03/1992; 85(2):420-33. · 15.20 Impact Factor