A 1-year double-blind study of 2 doses of long-acting risperidone in stable patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.
ABSTRACT This study examined the effects of 2 doses of long-acting risperidone injection in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.
This 52-week, prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, international study included clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (DSM-IV criteria). Settings included physicians' offices and clinics. Patients received a fixed dose of long-acting risperidone (25 or 50 mg) every 2 weeks. Primary outcome was time to relapse, defined as either re-hospitalization or other exacerbation criteria. Other assessments included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale, and functional and quality-of-life measures. Safety was assessed via treatment-emergent adverse events, laboratory tests, and movement disorder rating scales. Data were collected from December 2002 to September 2004.
A total of 324 patients were randomized to 25 mg (N = 163) or 50 mg (N = 161) of long-acting risperidone. Time to relapse was comparable (p = .131) for both groups. Projected median time to relapse was 161.8 weeks (95% CI = 103.0 to 254.2) with 25 mg and 259.0 weeks (95% CI = 153.6 to 436.8) with 50 mg. One-year incidences of relapse were 21.6% (N = 35) and 14.9% (N = 24), respectively (p = .059). Psychiatric hospitalization was the reason for relapse for 16 (10%) in the 25-mg group and 10 (6%) in the 50-mg group. Patients experienced statistically significant but modest improvements at endpoint in most measures (i.e., psychotic symptoms, functioning, movement disorder severity) with both doses, with no significant between-group differences.
In this 1-year study, long-acting risperidone was associated with low relapse and rehospitalization rates, indicating that doses of 25 to 50 mg are appropriate for long-term treatment in schizophrenia.
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ABSTRACT: Technology drives both health care spending and health improvement. Yet policy makers rarely see measures of cost growth that account for both effects. To fill this gap, we present the quality-adjusted cost of care, which illustrates cost growth net of growth in the value of health improvements, measured as survival gains multiplied by the value of survival. We applied the quality-adjusted cost of care to two cases. For colorectal cancer, drug cost per patient increased by $34,493 between 1998 and 2005 as a result of new drug launches, but value from offsetting health improvements netted a modest $1,377 increase in quality-adjusted cost of care. For multiple myeloma, new therapies increased treatment cost by $72,937 between 2004 and 2009, but offsetting health benefits lowered overall quality-adjusted cost of care by $67,863. However, patients with multiple myeloma on established first-line therapies saw costs rise without corresponding benefits. All three examples document rapid cost growth, but they provide starkly different answers to the question of whether society got what it paid for. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.Health Affairs 04/2015; 34(4):555-61. DOI:10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0639 · 4.64 Impact Factor
03/2014; 16(2). DOI:10.4088/PCC.13f01514
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ABSTRACT: This study was aimed at investigating or designed to investigate long-term clinical outcomes of risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. An open-label, 48-week, prospective study of RLAI treatment was carried out at 63 centers in South Korea. Initial and maintenance dosage of RLAI were adjusted according to clinical judgment. Efficacy was measured by the remission rate, continuation rate, and changes in the clinical measurements such as eight items of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), the Clinical Global Impression - Severity, and the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale. In terms of the safety, Simpson-Angus rating Scale, adverse events (AEs), and BMI were investigated. Of the 522 patients who were enrolled, 472 patients who had been assessed on the eight items of PANSS at baseline and at least once during RLAI treatment were included in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. The per-protocol (PP) population included 184 patients (39.0%), who completed all assessments during 48 weeks of the follow-up period. Total scores of eight items of PANSS, Clinical Global Impression - Severity, and Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale were reduced significantly from baseline to endpoint in both ITT and PP populations. The mean dose (SD) of RLAI was 33.2 (7.6) mg. In the PP population, the number of patients who scored 1-3 on eight items of PANSS were 47 (25.5%) at baseline and 144 (78.3%) at 48 weeks. According to the remission defining as scores 1-3 on eight items of PANSS sustaining of at least 6 months' duration by Andreasen, the numbers of patients who achieved remission were 45 (24.5%) at 24 weeks and 120 (65.2%) at 48 weeks. A significant decrease in the mean score of Simpson-Angus rating Scale and a significant increase in BMI over time in last observation carried forward were observed, and patients who fulfilled the remission criteria during the study showed more weight gain than those who did not. During the study period, a total of 645 AEs were noted in 233 patients (49.3%) who were included in the ITT population. Sixty-nine serious AEs in 51 patients were reported, but all of them were not directly attributable to administration of RLAI. This prospective, open-label study showed improvements in symptom and AEs and a significant increase in BMI during 48 weeks of biweekly RLAI treatment. The rate of study completion was 39.0% and the remission rate among those who completed the study was 65.2%. None of the serious AEs were directly related to the administration of RLAI.International clinical psychopharmacology 02/2014; DOI:10.1097/YIC.0000000000000030 · 3.10 Impact Factor