Article

Expression and regulation of heme oxygenase isozymes in the developing mouse cortex

Department of Pediatrics , Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States
Pediatric Research (Impact Factor: 2.84). 12/2006; 60(5):518-23. DOI: 10.1203/01.PDR.0000242374.21415.f5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Heme oxygenase (HO), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, plays a role in neonatal jaundice. Understanding the regulation of the developmental expression patterns of the two HO isozymes, HO-1 and HO-2, is essential for targeting HO to control pathologic jaundice, and uncovering the fundamental role that they play in mammalian development. Here we characterized the ontogeny of HO-1 and HO-2 expression in the developing mouse cortex by in vivo bioluminescence imaging, quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blot. HO-2, the predominant isoform in the adult cortex, was relatively stable throughout all ages. HO-1 was observed to be progressively down-regulated in an age-related manner. HO-1 expression in the adult cortex was also the lowest among the eight adult tissues analyzed. Because there is a 283-bp CpG island region in the HO-1 promoter, we hypothesized that methylation of the island is responsible for the age-related HO-1 down-regulation in the cortex. Methylation status was assessed using regular and quantitative methylation-specific PCR and the CpG island was found to be hypomethylated at all ages. Therefore, we conclude that HO-1 gene expression in the cortex is developmentally-regulated and that methylation of the HO-1 CpG island is not associated with the down-regulation of the gene.

Full-text

Available from: Christopher H Contag, May 20, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
70 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is typified by mucosal destruction, which subsequently can lead to intestinal necrosis. Prematurity, enteral feeding, and bacterial colonization are the main risk factors, and combined with other stressors, can cause increased intestinal permeability, injury, and an exaggerated inflammatory response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mediates intestinal protection due to anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anti-apoptotic effects of its products, carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and bilirubin. This study investigates a possible role of HO-1 in the pathogenesis of NEC using a newborn mouse model. We induced NEC-like intestinal injury in 7d-old HO-1 heterozygous (HO-1 Het, Hmox1(+/-)) and wild-type (Wt, Hmox1(+/+)) mice by gavage feeding and hypoxic exposures. Control (Con) pups of both genotypes were dam-fed. Intestines of HO-1 Het Con pups appeared pre-disposed to injury, with higher histologic damage scores, more TUNEL-positive cells, and a significant reduction in muscularis externa thickness compared to Wt Con pups. The increase in HO activity after HO-1 induction by the substrate heme or by hypoxic stress was significantly impaired in HO-1 Het pups. After induction of intestinal injury, HO-1 Het pups displayed significantly higher NEC incidence (78% vs. 43%), mortality (83% vs. 54%), and median scores (2.5 vs. 1.5) than Wt NEC pups. PCR array analyses revealed increased expressions of Il-1β, P-selectin, matrix metallopeptidase 2, collagen type XVIII-α1, serpine 1, and others in NEC-induced HO-1 Het ileal and jejunal tissues. We conclude that a partial HO-1 deficiency promotes experimental NEC-like intestinal injury, possibly mediated by exaggerated inflammation and disruption in tissue repair.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 04/2013; 304(11). DOI:10.1152/ajpgi.00363.2012 · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The constitutive isoform of heme oxygenase, HO-2, is highly expressed in the brain and in cerebral vessels. HO-2 functions in the brain have been evaluated using pharmacological inhibitors of the enzyme and HO-2 gene deletion in in vivo animal models and in cultured cells (neurons, astrocytes, cerebral vascular endothelial cells). Rapid activation of HO-2 via post-translational modifications without upregulation of HO-2 expression or HO-1 induction coincides with the increase in cerebral blood flow aimed at maintaining brain homeostasis and neuronal survival during seizures, hypoxia, and hypotension. Pharmacological inhibition or gene deletion of brain HO-2 exacerbates oxidative stress induced by seizures, glutamate, and inflammatory cytokines, and causes cerebral vascular injury. Carbon monoxide (CO) and bilirubin, the end products of HO-catalyzed heme degradation, have distinct cytoprotective functions. CO, by binding to a heme prosthetic group, regulates the key components of cell signaling, including BKCa channels, guanylyl cyclase, NADPH oxidase, and the mitochondria respiratory chain. Cerebral vasodilator effects of CO are mediated via activation of BKCa channels and guanylyl cyclase. CO, by inhibiting the major components of endogenous oxidant-generating machinery, NADPH oxidase and the cytochrome C oxidase of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, blocks formation of reactive oxygen species. Bilirubin, via redox cycling with biliverdin, is a potent oxidant scavenger that removes preformed oxidants. Overall, HO-2 has dual housekeeping cerebroprotective functions by maintaining autoregulation of cerebral blood flow aimed at improving neuronal survival in a changing environment, and by providing an effective defense mechanism that blocks oxidant formation and prevents cell death caused by oxidative stress.
    Current Pharmaceutical Design 02/2008; 14(5):443-453. DOI:10.2174/138161208783597380 · 3.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hemeoxygenase (HO) system is responsible for cellular heme degradation to biliverdin, iron, and carbon monoxide. Two isoforms have been reported to date. Homologous HO-1 and HO-2 are microsomal proteins with more than 45% residue identity, share a similar fold and catalyze the same reaction. However, important differences between isoforms also exist. HO-1 isoform has been extensively studied mainly by its ability to respond to cellular stresses such as hemin, nitric oxide donors, oxidative damage, hypoxia, hyperthermia, and heavy metals, between others. On the contrary, due to its apparently constitutive nature, HO-2 has been less studied. Nevertheless, its abundance in tissues such as testis, endothelial cells, and particularly in brain, has pointed the relevance of HO-2 function. HO-2 presents particular characteristics that made it a unique protein in the HO system. Since attractive results on HO-2 have been arisen in later years, we focused this review in the second isoform. We summarize information on gene description, protein structure, and catalytic activity of HO-2 and particular facts such as its cellular impact and activity regulation. Finally, we call attention on the role of HO-2 in oxygen sensing, discussing proposed hypothesis on heme binding motifs and redox/thiol switches that participate in oxygen sensing as well as evidences of HO-2 response to hypoxia.
    Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 07/2014; 2014:604981. DOI:10.1155/2014/604981 · 3.36 Impact Factor