Integrating tobacco cessation treatment into mental health care for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder
ABSTRACT The integration of tobacco cessation treatment into mental health care for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), known as Integrated Care (IC), was evaluated in an uncontrolled feasibility and effectiveness study. Veterans (N = 107) in PTSD treatment at two outpatient clinics received IC delivered by mental health practitioners. Outcomes were seven-day point prevalence abstinence measured at two, four, six, and nine months post-enrollment and repeated seven-day point prevalence abstinence (RPPA) obtained across three consecutive assessment intervals (four, six, and nine months). Abstinence rates at the four assessment intervals were 28%, 23%, 25%, and 18%, respectively, and RPPA was 15%. The number of IC sessions and a previous quit history greater than six months predicted RPPA. Stopping smoking was not associated with worsening PTSD or depression.
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ABSTRACT: Young people with mental health concerns are at high-risk for initiation and continuation of tobacco use. To inform treatment needs, the current study sought to describe tobacco dependence, motivations to quit and associated sociodemographic factors among young people seen in mental health settings. Sixty adolescent and young adult smokers (age mean=19.5 years, range 13-25) receiving outpatient mental health treatment completed measures of tobacco dependence, motivation to quit smoking, mental health, and social environmental factors. Participants averaged 8.0 cigarettes per day (SD=6.6) and moderate nicotine dependence (mFTQ M=4.8, SD=1.6). Participants' mean rating (10-point scales) of perceived difficulty with avoiding relapse during a quit attempt was significantly higher (M=6.7, SD=2.6), than ratings of desire (M=5.1, SD=2.6) and perceived success (M=4.6, SD=2.6) with quitting. Over half (52%) did not intend to quit smoking in the next 6 months, and few (11%) were prepared to quit in the next 30 days. Mental health treatment and symptomatology measures were unrelated to level of dependence or motivation to quit. Among the social environmental factors, having close friends who smoke was associated with greater perceived difficulty with avoiding relapse during a quit attempt (r=0.25, p<0.01). In this sample of adolescent and young adult smokers in mental health treatment, moderate levels of tobacco dependence and motivation to quit were observed and found to be unrelated to mental health measures. Over half of the sample was not intending to quit smoking in the near future, supporting the need for treatment strategies aimed at increasing motivation.Drug and alcohol dependence 05/2012; 125(1-2):127-31. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.04.005 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In mental health and addiction treatment settings, failure to treat tobacco dependence has been rationalized by some as a clinical approach to harm reduction. That is, tobacco use is viewed as a less harmful alternative to alcohol or illicit drug use and/or other self-harm behaviors. This paper examines the impact of providers' failure to treat tobacco use on patients' alcohol and illicit drug use and associated high-risk behaviors. The weight of the evidence in the literature indicates: (1) tobacco use is a leading cause of death in patients with psychiatric illness or addictive disorders; (2) tobacco use is associated with worsened substance abuse treatment outcomes, whereas treatment of tobacco dependence supports long-term sobriety; (3) tobacco use is associated with increased (not decreased) depressive symptoms and suicidal risk behavior; (4) tobacco use adversely impacts psychiatric treatment; (5) tobacco use is a lethal and ineffective long-term coping strategy for managing stress, and (6) treatment of tobacco use does not harm mental health recovery. Failure to treat tobacco dependence in mental health and addiction treatment settings is not consistent with a harm reduction model. In contrast, emerging evidence indicates treatment of tobacco dependence may even improve addiction treatment and mental health outcomes. Providers in mental health and addiction treatment settings have an ethical duty to intervene on patients' tobacco use and provide available evidence-based treatments.Drug and alcohol dependence 04/2010; 110(3):177-82. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.03.002 · 3.28 Impact Factor
- Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association 12/2009; 15(6):404-9. DOI:10.1177/1078390309355318