A Longitudinal Approach to Assessing Urban and Suburban Children’s Exposure to Pyrethroid Pesticides

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Environmental Health Perspectives (Impact Factor: 7.03). 10/2006; 114(9):1419-23. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.9043
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We conducted a longitudinal study to assess the exposure of 23 elementary school-age children to pyrethroid pesticides, using urinary pyrethroid metabolites as exposure biomarkers. We substituted most of the children's conventional diets with organic food items for 5 consecutive days and collected two daily spot urine samples, first morning and before bedtime voids, throughout the 15-day study period. We analyzed urine samples for five common pyrethroid metabolites. We found an association between the parents' self-reported pyrethroid use in the residential environment and elevated pyrethroid metabolite levels found in their children's urine. Children were also exposed to pyrethroids through their conventional diets, although the magnitude was smaller than for the residential exposure. Children's ages appear to be significantly associated with pyrethroids exposure, which is likely attributed to the use of pyrethroids around the premises or in the facilities where older children engaged in the outdoor activities. We conclude that residential pesticide use represents the most important risk factor for children's exposure to pyrethroid insecticides. Because of the wide use of pyrethroids in the United States, the findings of this study are important for both children's pesticide exposure assessment and environmental public health.


Available from: Dana B Barr, Jan 10, 2014
1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the widespread use of pyrethroid insecticides that led to common exposure in the population, few studies have been conducted to quantitatively assess dose-additive effects of pyrethroids using a funcional measure involved in the common toxic mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potency and efficacy of 6 Type II pyretroids (α-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, λ-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, cyphenothrin and esfenvalerate) to evoke induction of both nitric oxide and lipid peroxides levels measured as malondialdehyde in three in vitro models (SH-SY5Y, HepG2 and Caco-2 human cells) as well as to test the hypothesis of dose additivity for mixtures of these same 6 pyrethroids. Concentration-responses for 6 pyrethroids were determined as well as the response to mixtures of all 6 pyrethroids. Additivity was tested assuming a dose-additive model. The human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line was the most sensitive in vitro model. The rank order of potency for cell SH-SY5Y viability MTT assay was deltamethrin>cyphenothrin>λ-cyhalothrin>cyfluthrin>esfenvalerate>α-cypermethrin. When 6 pyrethroids were present in the mixture at an equitoxic mixing ratio, the action on nitric oxide (NO) and lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) production was consistent with a dose-additive model. The results of the present study are consistent with previous reports of additivity of pyrethroids in vivo e in vitro. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Environmental Research 02/2015; 138C:58-66. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2015.02.008 · 3.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Synthetic pyrethroids are present in numerous commercial insecticide formulations and have extensive indoor and outdoor applications worldwide, including agricultural, public, residential, and veterinary usages for pest control. Pyrethroid use has increased continuously in recent years. The aim of this review is to provide updated and comprehensive information on human exposure and potential hazards associated with this class of pesticides. An initial keyword search in the PubMed database was conducted to identify relevant articles. Were taken into considerations only the studies published in the last decade that have assessed exposure and health effects of pyrethroids in human populations. Literature review shows that exposure evaluations increasingly focus on biomonitoring and that a large number of recent epidemiological studies pertain to the effects of pyrethroids on male fertility and prenatal development.
    International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 01/2015; 218(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijheh.2015.01.002 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Although infants and young children are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) exposure, there is an absence of comprehensive exposure data for this age group. As young children spend the majority of their time indoors, improved methods of exposure assessment are needed to characterise the health risks from exposures in the home environment. Biologic assessment, which has been considered the gold standard for exposure assessment in recent years, is difficult to conduct in young children. Questionnaires are an alternative and indirect method of predicting exposure, which may overcome some of the limitations of direct exposure assessment. Research problem: The feasibility of using a questionnaire-based approach to predict exposure of young children to EDCs in the home has yet to be comprehensively reviewed. Moreover, there is no one questionnaire that has been validated for predicting the exposure of infants to common EDCs in the home. Aims and objectives: The aim of this review is to discuss the use and validation of the questionnaire-based approach to predict exposure of children to chemicals from three common classes of EDCs in the home, namely, plasticisers, flame retardants, and insecticides. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the questionnaire-based approach as well as the important pathways of exposure in the home environment, by which to guide the design and validation of future exposure questionnaires. Results: The findings from our review indicate that the questionnaire-based approach is a valuable tool in the prediction of exposure to persistent organic pollutants, as well as to toxicants that have consistent patterns of exposure. With improvements to the design and validation process, the questionnaire-based approach may also prove to be a reliable instrument in predicting exposure to EDCs with short-half lives, including bisphenol A, phthalates, and pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides.
    02/2015; DOI:10.1515/reveh-2014-0069

Similar Publications