Transfusion-related acute lung injury and pulmonary edema in critically ill patients: a retrospective study
ABSTRACT Using the recent Consensus Panel recommendations, we sought to describe the incidence of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) in critically ill patients.
Consecutive patients at four intensive care units (ICUs) who did not require respiratory support at the time of transfusion were identified with custom electronic surveillance system that prospectively tracks the time of transfusion and onset of respiratory support. Respiratory failure was defined as the onset of noninvasive or invasive ventilator support within 6 hours of transfusion. Experts blinded to specific transfusion factors categorized the cases of pulmonary edema as permeability edema (suspected or possible TRALI) or hydrostatic edema (TACO) according to predefined algorithm. In a nested case-control design, transfusion variables and lung injury risk factors were compared between the TRALI cases and controls matched by age, sex, and admission diagnosis.
There were 8902 units transfused in 1351 patients of whom 94 required new respiratory support within 6 hours of transfusion. Among 49 patients with confirmed acute pulmonary edema, experts identified 7 cases with suspected TRALI, 17 patients with possible TRALI, and 25 cases with TACO. The incidence of suspected TRALI was 1 in 1271 units transfused; possible TRALI, 1 in 534 per unit transfused; and TACO, 1 in 356 per unit transfused. When adjusted for sepsis and fluid balance in a stepwise conditional logistic regression analysis, patients who developed acute lung injury (suspected or possible TRALI) received larger amount of plasma (odds ratio 3.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2-10.2, for each liter infused; p = 0.023).
In the ICU, pulmonary edema frequently occurs after blood transfusion. The association between infusion of plasma and the development of suspected or possible TRALI may have important implications with regards to etiology and prevention of this syndrome.
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ABSTRACT: Fresh frozen plasma transfusion is widely utilized in pediatric clinical practice to correct mild coagulopathy. Several studies on adult population have shown that transfusion of plasma cannot effectively correct mild coagulopathy when international normalized ratio (INR) is ≤1.5. Much controversy exists about the generalization of this finding for pediatric populations, especially since pediatric dosages often exceed those in adults. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of plasma transfusion with mild coagulopathy (INR ≤ 1.5) and its effectiveness in a pediatric setting. In our tertiary referral hospital, we retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of all patients who received plasma (April to October 2011) for mildly elevated prothrombin time (PT)-INR levels (≤1.5) and had post-transfusion PT-INR measurements; patients who received intraoperative, ECMO, or plasma exchange-related plasma transfusions were excluded from this study. We abstracted demographic data and pre- and post coagulation test results for the patients included in our study. Among 468 plasma transfusions administered to 285 patients from April to June 2011, 60 plasma transfusions (12.8%) were given to patients with PT-INR ≤ 1.5 (range 1.3-1.5). Forty-one patients [median age 2.5 years (IQR, 0.14 to 13.75 years), median weight of 16.0 kg (IQR, 8.0 to 69.3 kg)] who received 41 single plasma transfusions [median dose 11 mL/Kg (IQR, 6-15)] had post-transfusion PT-INR measurements and were included in our study. There was no significant difference in their PT-INR values (p = 0.34) pre- and post-transfusion. Of our study, only 15.4% patients showed post-transfusion normalization [median change in PT-INR 0.15 (IQR, 0.1-0.2)] and were not different from the remaining 85% in age, plasma dose, and bleeding status. The prevalence of plasma transfusion for correction of mildly elevated PT-INR levels in critically ill children is high (12.8%). Plasma transfusion showed no significant effect in correcting minor prolongation of PT-INR in pediatric patients regardless of age, volume of plasma transfused per kilogram (dosage), or bleeding status.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose of review To point out the tolerance of anemia, the possible use of alternatives to allogeneic blood products as well as the pathophysiological effects of transfusions in the context of multiple trauma patients. Recent findings Restrictive transfusion triggers are beneficial for patient outcome in trauma. The actual European Trauma Treatment Guidelines suggest the use of point-of-care devices, the use of transfusion algorithms and factor concentrates to control coagulopathy. The use of high ratios of plasma to red blood cells to improve survival has been shown to suffer from a time-dependent survival bias. In massive bleeding, factor-based treatment of coagulopathy is feasible and preferable to plasma transfusion, if available. In nonmassive bleeding, allogeneic transfusion of blood products increases the appearance of serious adverse events and mortality and should be avoided unless clearly indicated. Summary Transfusion in trauma has to be an individual decision for a specific patient, not for a specific laboratory value. Transfusion management must aim at reducing or even avoiding the use of allogeneic blood products. This may lead to a new gold standard with cost reduction and amelioration of outcome of major trauma patients.Current Opinion in Critical Care 10/2014; 20(6):646-55. DOI:10.1097/MCC.0000000000000152
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ABSTRACT: To explore the effect of various adverse hospital events on short- and long-term outcomes in a cohort of acutely ill hospitalized patients. In a secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort of acutely ill hospitalized patients with sepsis, shock, or pneumonia or undergoing high-risk surgery who were at risk for or had developed acute respiratory distress syndrome between 2001 and 2010, the effects of potentially preventable hospital exposures and adverse events (AEs) on in-hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality, length of stay, and long-term survival were analyzed. Adverse effects chosen for inclusion were inadequate empiric antimicrobial coverage, hospital-acquired aspiration, medical or surgical misadventure, inappropriate blood product transfusion, and injurious tidal volume while on mechanical ventilation. In 828 patients analyzed, the distribution of 0, 1, 2, and 3 or more cumulative AEs was 521 (63%), 126 (15%), 135 (16%), and 46 (6%) patients, respectively. The adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for in-hospital mortality in patients who had 1, 2, and 3 or more AEs were 0.9 (0.5-1.7), 0.9 (0.5-1.6), and 1.4 (0.6-3.3), respectively. One AE increased the length of stay, difference between means (95% CI), in the hospital by 8.7 (3.8-13.7) days and in the ICU by 2.4 (0.6-4.2) days. Potentially preventable hospital exposure to AEs is associated with prolonged ICU and hospital lengths of stay. Implementation of effective patient safety interventions is of utmost priority in acute care hospitals. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.