Using the recent Consensus Panel recommendations, we sought to describe the incidence of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) in critically ill patients.
Consecutive patients at four intensive care units (ICUs) who did not require respiratory support at the time of transfusion were identified with custom electronic surveillance system that prospectively tracks the time of transfusion and onset of respiratory support. Respiratory failure was defined as the onset of noninvasive or invasive ventilator support within 6 hours of transfusion. Experts blinded to specific transfusion factors categorized the cases of pulmonary edema as permeability edema (suspected or possible TRALI) or hydrostatic edema (TACO) according to predefined algorithm. In a nested case-control design, transfusion variables and lung injury risk factors were compared between the TRALI cases and controls matched by age, sex, and admission diagnosis.
There were 8902 units transfused in 1351 patients of whom 94 required new respiratory support within 6 hours of transfusion. Among 49 patients with confirmed acute pulmonary edema, experts identified 7 cases with suspected TRALI, 17 patients with possible TRALI, and 25 cases with TACO. The incidence of suspected TRALI was 1 in 1271 units transfused; possible TRALI, 1 in 534 per unit transfused; and TACO, 1 in 356 per unit transfused. When adjusted for sepsis and fluid balance in a stepwise conditional logistic regression analysis, patients who developed acute lung injury (suspected or possible TRALI) received larger amount of plasma (odds ratio 3.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2-10.2, for each liter infused; p = 0.023).
In the ICU, pulmonary edema frequently occurs after blood transfusion. The association between infusion of plasma and the development of suspected or possible TRALI may have important implications with regards to etiology and prevention of this syndrome.
"TRALI is thought to be the result of two critical events: activation of the pulmonary vascular endothelium with priming of neutrophils, followed by transfusion of antibodies to leukocyte antigens with resultant activation and neutrophil-mediated cytotoxicity . TRALI may occur as often as once for every 1271 units transfuse  with an incidence up to 8% in ICU patients . Watson and colleagues estimated a cumulative increase in the risk of ALI from each unit of FFP at 2.5%, and of multiple organ failure from each unit at 2.1% . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Care of the polytrauma patient does not end in the operating room or resuscitation bay. The patient presenting to the intensive care unit following initial resuscitation and damage control surgery may be far from stable with ongoing hemorrhage, resuscitation needs, and injuries still requiring definitive repair. The intensive care physician must understand the respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immunologic consequences of trauma resuscitation and massive transfusion in order to evaluate and adjust the ongoing resuscitative needs of the patient and address potential complications. In this review, we address ongoing resuscitation in the intensive care unit along with potential complications in the trauma patient after initial resuscitation. Complications such as abdominal compartment syndrome, transfusion related patterns of acute lung injury and metabolic consequences subsequent to post-trauma resuscitation are presented.
A non-systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews up to May 2012.
Results and conclusion
Polytrauma patients with severe shock from hemorrhage and massive tissue injury present major challenges for management and resuscitation in the intensive care setting. Many of the current recommendations for “damage control resuscitation” including the use of fixed ratios in the treatment of trauma induced coagulopathy remain controversial. A lack of large, randomized, controlled trials leaves most recommendations at the level of consensus, expert opinion. Ongoing trials and improvements in monitoring and resuscitation technologies will further influence how we manage these complex and challenging patients.
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 09/2012; 20(1):68. DOI:10.1186/1757-7241-20-68 · 2.03 Impact Factor
"When activation status is too low, it is possible that priming factors in the transfusion are not strong enough to overcome the threshold. The threshold model may explain why the estimated incidence of TRALI is higher in cardiac surgery and critically ill patients    . These patients often suffer from an inflammatory condition, which may contribute to "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose. Onset of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is suggested to be a threshold-event. Data is lacking on the relation between titer of antibodies infused and onset of TRALI. We determined whether onset of TRALI is dependent on the titer of MHC-I antibodies infused in a combined model of ventilator-induced lung injury and antibody-induced TRALl. Methods. BALB/c mice were ventilated for five hours with low (7.5 ml/kg) or high (15 ml/kg) tidal volume. After three hours of MV, TRALI was induced by infusion of 0.5 mg/kg, 2.0 mg/kg or 4.5 mg/kg MHC-I antibodies. Control animals received vehicle. After five hours of MV, animals were sacrificed. Results. MV with high tidal volumes resulted in increased levels of all markers of lung injury compared to animals ventilated with low tidal MV. In ventilator-induced lung injury, infusion of 4.5 mg/kg of antibodies further increased pulmonary wet-to-dry ratio, pulmonary neutrophil influx and pulmonary KC levels, whereas infusion of lower dose of antibodies did not augment lung injury. In contrast, mice ventilated with low tidal volumes did not develop lung injury, irrespective of the dose of antibody used. Conclusions. In the presence of injurious MV, onset of TRALI depends on the titer of antibodies infused.
Critical care research and practice 06/2012; 2012(10):720950. DOI:10.1155/2012/720950
"It is well shown that FFP transfusion is an independent risk factor for new onset of acute lung injury [39-45], in particular in patients who are mechanically ventilated . Furthermore, studies consistently report a significant increase in length of ICU stay [34,44,46]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is an effective therapy to correct for a deficiency of multiple coagulation factors during bleeding. In past years, use of FFP has increased, in particular in patients on the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and has expanded to include prophylactic use in patients with a coagulopathy prior to undergoing an invasive procedure. Retrospective studies suggest that prophylactic use of FFP does not prevent bleeding, but carries the risk of transfusion-related morbidity. However, up to 50% of FFP is administered to non-bleeding ICU patients. With the aim to investigate whether prophylactic FFP transfusions to critically ill patients can be safely omitted, a multi-center randomized clinical trial is conducted in ICU patients with a coagulopathy undergoing an invasive procedure.
A non-inferiority, prospective, multicenter randomized open-label, blinded end point evaluation (PROBE) trial. In the intervention group, a prophylactic transfusion of FFP prior to an invasive procedure is omitted compared to transfusion of a fixed dose of 12 ml/kg in the control group. Primary outcome measure is relevant bleeding. Secondary outcome measures are minor bleeding, correction of International Normalized Ratio, onset of acute lung injury, length of ventilation days and length of Intensive Care Unit stay.
The Transfusion of Fresh Frozen Plasma in non-bleeding ICU patients (TOPIC) trial is the first multi-center randomized controlled trial powered to investigate whether it is safe to withhold FFP transfusion to coagulopathic critically ill patients undergoing an invasive procedure.
Trial registration: Dutch Trial Register NTR2262 and ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01143909.
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