(NHC)Copper(I)-catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition of azides and mono- or disubstituted alkynes.
ABSTRACT A versatile and highly efficient catalyst for the Huisgen cycloaddition reaction has been developed. Previously isolated or in situ generated azides yielded 1,2,3-triazoles with differently substituted alkynes in the presence of a [(NHC)CuBr] complex (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene). Extremely high reaction rates and excellent yields were obtained in all cases. This catalytic system fulfils the requirements of "click chemistry" with its mild and convenient conditions, notably in water or solvent free reactions and simple isolation with no purification step. Furthermore, for the first time, an internal alkyne was successfully used in this copper-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction. DFT calculations on this particular system allowed for the proposition of a new mechanistic pathway for disubstituted alkynes.
- SourceAvailable from: Louis Noodleman[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Huisgen's 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions become nonconcerted when copper(I) acetylides react with azides and nitrile oxides, providing ready access to 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles and 3,4-disubstituted isoxazoles, respectively. The process is highly reliable and exhibits an unusually wide scope with respect to both components. Computational studies revealed a stepwise mechanism involving unprecedented metallacycle intermediates, which appear to be common for a variety of dipoles.Journal of the American Chemical Society 02/2005; 127(1):210-6. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The catalytic hydrosilylation of highly hindered and functionalized ketones is described. The combination of inexpensive catalyst precursors, CuCl and NHC.HX (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene), leads to a highly efficient reduction mediator for the preparation of silyl ethers from unfunctionalized and functionalized alkyl, cyclic, bicyclic, aromatic, and heteroaromatic ketones. A series of catalyst precursors have been structurally characterized and a catalyst-structure activity relationship is discussed.The Journal of Organic Chemistry 07/2005; 70(12):4784-96. · 4.56 Impact Factor
- Angewandte Chemie International Edition 06/2006; 45(22):3647-50. · 13.73 Impact Factor